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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Accelerator board: A printed circuit board added to a PC
to increase its performance speeds. For example, if you have a
Macintosh containing a Motorola 68000 CPU, you can purchase an
accelerator board containing the faster 68030 CPU.
Access: The process of obtaining data from, or transferring
data to a storage device, register or RAM.
Access Time: The amount of time it takes a computer to
locate an area of memory for data storage or retrieval.
Achromatic: Without color. A lens which refracts light
of all colors equally is said to be achromatic.
Acid Paper: Nonpermanent papers (PH below 7.0).
Active Display Area: The portion of an image that falls
inside the viewing area of a computer monitor.
ADB: Apple Desktop Bus: The Macintosh plug-in port where
the keyboard, mouse, trackball, graphics tablet, etc. are connected.
Additive Color System: Means of producing an image by combining
red, green and blue light, which are each approximately one-third
of the visible spectrum. When added together, red and green light
produce yellow; red and blue light produce magenta; blue and green
light produce cyan. When added together in equal amounts, red,
green and blue light produce white light. Examples of the use of
additive color are television screens and computer monitors.
Additive Primaries: Are red, blue and green. In color reproduction,
equal parts of red, blue, and green light give us the sensation
of white light. These colors are used in the form of filters in
order to create the complementary colors, cyan, yellow and magenta.
Adhesives: In paper, glues that bind coated paper ingredients
Adobe Type Manager: Software from Adobe Systems for Macintosh
and IBM PC's that eliminates jagged edges on screen fonts and allows
inexpensive laser printers to reproduce postscript fonts accurately
and clearly. 1-800-64-ADOBE
AFP: AppleTalk Filing Protocol. The protocol that non-Apple
networks need to use in order to access data in an AppleTalk server.
Air Knife Coating: In paper, coating method wherein a thin
blade of air is used to apply coating to the sheet uniformly.
Airmail Boarders: Refers to an envelope with a border of
triangles or diamonds printed on the front and back.
Alias: a computer system name that points to another name,
instead of an underlying object. Most Web URLs are either wholly
or partly aliases (to protect the underlying file system on the
Web server they point at).
Aliasing: Condition when graphics, either constructed with
lines (vectored) or dots (bitmapped), show jagged edges under magnification.
Alkaline Paper: Permanent papers (PH of 7.5 - 8.2).
America Online: An online information provider, usually
known by its initials (AOL), which got its start as a dial up service
off the Internet and which has become the largest Internet Service
Provider in the world.
Angstrom Unit: A unit of measurement of the length of light
waves. It is equal to 1/10 of a millimicron, or one ten-millionth
of a millimeter. There are approximately 254,000,000 Angstrom units
in an inch.
Animated Graphics: Moving diagrams or cartoons. Often found
in the computer-based courseware, animated graphics take up far
less disk space than video images.
Annotation: The ability to attach notes to graphics or
images by typing them in, using a light pen or digitizing tablet.
Useful for clarifying documents or editing images.
Anodized: In paper, refers to grained.
ANSI: American National Standards Institute. A standards-setting,
non-government organization which develops standards for "voluntary" use
in the United States. Standards set are accepted by vendors in
that country. ANSI is located at 1430 Broadway, New York NY 10018,
Antioffset Powder: Powder which creates a gap between sheets
of paper to aid in the ink drying process.
Antique Finish: In paper, a toothy, open texture, usually
giving a hand-crafted look.
APR: Automatic Picture Replacement. A Scitex term describing
a feature in their systems which allows a low resolution F.P.O.
Image to be automatically replaced by its high resolution scan
when being output.
Apple: Apple Computer, Inc., Cupertino, CA. Manufacturer
of personal computers. Heavy penetration in the graphics/desktop
AppleScript: Apple's scripting language for the Macintosh
OS, which is commonly used to program CGIs for Macintosh-based
AppleTalk: The Apple networking protocol used to connect
Macintosh computers with each other, or with shared devices. AppleTalk,
with the appropriate interface card, can also be used to connect
to DOS-based platform computers.
Application: Generic term for any software program that
carries out a useful task. Word processors and graphics programs
Applicator Roll Streaks: In paper, streaks on a coated
sheet caused by an interruption in coating flow.
Archival: In paper, the stock contains no groundwood or
Archive: A copy of data on disks, CD-ROM, mag tape, etc.,
for the long-term storage and later possible access.
Ascender: A typographic term for the portion of lowercase
characters that rises above the main body of the letter. The lowercase
letters b, d, f, h, k, l and t have ascenders.
ASCII: American Standard Code for Information Interchange.
Pronounced AS-key. It's the most popular method used by small computers
for converting letters, numbers, punctuation and control codes
into digital form. Once defined, ASCII characters can be recognized
and understood by other computers and by communication devices.
ASCII represents characters, numbers, punctuation marks or signals
in seven binary bits. A capital "C", for example, is
1000011, while a "3" is 0110011.
ASCII sort: A means of alphabetizing that accounts for
capital letters and numbers. To arrange something in an ASCII sort,
numbers (digits) come first in numerical order, followed by capital
letters in alphabetical order, followed by lower case characters
in alphabetical order. This glossary is NOT in an ASCII sort.
Aspect ratio: The relationship of width to height. When
an image is displayed on different screens or on paper or microform,
the aspect ratio must be kept the same. Otherwise the image will
be "stretched" either vertically or horizontally.
Autoflow: In a word processor package, a mode of text placement
in which text flows continuously onto successive pages or columns.
Additional pages are usually created as needed, depending upon
the application [ back to top ]
Back Trimming: Cutting all edges of a sheet of paper with
the back (non-beveled) edge of the trimming knife.
Back Up: The process of copying a file or program in the
event the original is damaged, lost, or unavailable.
Backing Up: Printing the other side of a printed sheet.
Backup: Copy of current and/or recent data for short-term
storage in case of catastrophic loss. Only data changed or added
since the backup was made will be lost. Backups should be made
frequently. Their usefulness is over when a more recent backup
is made. Contrast with Archive.
Bar Code: A system of portraying data in a series of machine-readable
lines of varying widths. The "UPC" on consumer items
is a bar code. In document management, a bar code is used to encode
indexing information. In microfiche, bar codes allow the automatic
control of the duplication process, plus contain indexing information.
These bar codes usually appear in the last two or three title frames
in the first title row of a microfiche.
Baronial Envelope: Nearly square. Has pointy flap. Good
for greeting cards and invitations. Not generally machine insertable.
Barrel Fold: Folding a sheet two or more times in the same
Base Alignment: Arrangement that allows columns of text
to fall on the same line across the page, regardless of varying
sizes of the elements in the columns.
Baseline: The imaginary horizontal line upon which typeset
characters appear to rest.
Base Color: A first color used as a background on which
other colors are printed.
Base Font: Typeface that graphics software defaults to
if no other font is specified.
Basic Size: A standard, predetermined size for a particular
type of paper.
Basis Weight: The weight in pounds of a predetermined number
of sheets of paper having a specific size for a specific type of
Batch Processing: Conducting a group of computer tasks
at one time, instead of throughout the day.
Baud: A unit of data transmission speed.
Bidirectional Printing: A typewriter always prints from
left to right. So did the early computer printers. That's unidirectional
printing. The newer computer printers will print from left to right,
drop down a line, then print from right to left. Bidirectional.
This increase the printer's speed.
Binders: Additives in the paper making process which increase
strength and hardness while decreasing surface fuzz.
Binder's Creep: The slight but cumulative extension of
the edges of each inserted spread or signature beyond the edges
of the one that encloses it in a saddle stitch bind.
Binding: The fastening of the assembled sheets or signatures
along an edge of a publication.
BIOS: Basic Input/Output System, the portion of the program
in some operating systems that tailors it to a specific computer.
Bit: Contraction for Binary DigiT. The smallest unit of
data a computer can process. Represents one of two conditions:
on or off; 1 or 0, mark or space; something or nothing. Bits are
arranged into groups of eight called bytes. A byte is the equivalent
of one character.
Bit Map: Representation of characters or graphics by individual
pixels, or points of light, dark or color, arranged in row (horizontal)
and column (vertical) order. Each pixel is represented by either
one bit (simple black & white) or up to 32 bits (fancy high
Bit-mapped Font: A set of dot patterns that represent all
the letters, characters and digits in a type font at a particular
Bit-mapped Graphics: Graphic images which are formed with
sets of pixels, or dots, with a specific number of dots per inch.
Also called raster graphics and paint-type graphics. Contrast with
Bit Specifications: Number of colors or levels of gray
that can be displayed a one time. Controlled by the amount of memory
in the computer's graphics controller card. An 8-bit controller
can display 256 colors or levels of gray. A 16-bit can show 64,000
colors. A 24-bit controller can display 16.8 million colors or
Black and White: Originals or reproductions in a single
color, as distinguished from multicolor. When color separations
are made, the result is four black and white negatives, each representing
a process printing color.
Black Printer: The plate used with the cyan, magenta and
yellow plates; often used to enrich the contrast of the final reproduction.
Blade Coating: A paper coating method which results in
a very smooth surface.
Blanket: A fabric coated with natural or synthetic rubber
which is clamped around the blanket cylinder and which transfers
the ink from the press plate to the paper.
Bleed: A printed image (graphic) that extends beyond the
trim edge of the paper.
Blueline: A blue-toned photoprint produced from film negatives
which is prepared as a proof to check placement of elements of
an image or portion of an image on a layout.
Blow Up: A photographic or lithographic term used to explain
the enlargement of an original to another larger size.
Booklet Envelope (Open Side): Primarily used for booklets,
reports, and files. The flap is on the long side to facilitate
ease of stuffing by hand or by machine. Sizes are described using
envelope's dimensions. E.g., 9" x 12" or 6" x 9".
Boot: A common expression used to describe the process
of starting a computer with a bootstrap program.
BPS: Bits Per Second. Measurement of the number of bits
transferred in a data communications system. Measures speed.
Brightness: In color, the difference in range from white
when compared to dark tones and colors. Could also be considered
to be contrast. In photography, brightness is dependent upon correct
exposure. Overexposures will be very bright but will have lost
highlight density details. Underexposures will be very dense and
show little brightness. In paper, the reflectance or brilliance
of the paper.
Broadband: Characteristic of any network that multiplexes
multiple, independent network carriers onto a single cable. This
is usually done using frequency division multiplexing. Broadband
technology allows several networks to coexist on one single cable;
traffic from one network does not interfere with traffic from another
since the "conversations" happen on different frequencies
in the "ether," rather like the commercial radio system.
Browser: An Internet application that lets users access
WWW servers and surf the net.
Buffer: Device or allocated memory space used for temporary
storage. Printers commonly use buffers, for example, to hold incoming
text because the text arrives at a much faster rate than the printer
Bursting Strength: The amount of uniformily applied pressure
required to rupture a sheet of paper or corrugated product.
Business Reply Envelope (BRE): Any envelope printed with
a return address in its center. Can be designed so sender or receiver
pays the postage. Usually has Bar Codes and FIM codes.
Byte: Common unit of computer storage. A byte is eight
bits of information, one of which may be a parity bit. Generally,
eight bits equal one character. Also called an "octet.' [
back to top ]
C1S: Describes paper stock that is coated on one side.
C2S: Describes paper stock that is coated on two sides.
Cache: Pronounced "cash." Small portion of high-speed
memory used for temporary storage of frequently used data. Reduces
the time it would take to access that data, since it no longer
has to be retrieved from the disk.
CAD: Computer Aided (or Assisted) Design or Drafting. It
means using computers to design products or architecture. Sometimes
CAD output is sent directly to operate the
machinery that makes the product; this is called Computer Aided
Manufacturing. See CAM.
Calcium Carbonate: In alkaline paper making, the primary
filter; limestone or chalk.
Calendaring: A buffering process completed during paper
manufacturing that polishes the sheet surface making it less prone
to printing production difficulties.
Caliper: Thickness - Measured in thousandths of an inch.
Camera Ready Artwork: Paste up artwork (mechanical) in
which all type is set and sized correctly and pasted up in correct
position. All corrections have been made, all color breaks have
been made and is complete in every sense. Does not need to have
traps and/or reverses built in, but should include keylines and
F.P.O. prints for photographs.
Capstan: In imagesetters, a system for moving the film
or paper past the laser. The alternative is the drum, in which
paper or film is wrapped around a rotating drum.
Carbonless Paper: Chemically coated paper so that duplicate
copies can be produced without the use of carbons.
Case Sensitive: Knows the difference between capital letters
and lower case letters. A case-sensitive search for ""CASE" would
not find "case".
Cast Coated: Coated paper characterized by a highly polished,
mirrorlike surface and exceptional smoothness.
Catalog: Another name for a listing of directories or files
stored on a computer or disk.
Catalog Envelope (Open End): Flap is on the envelope's
short side. Its construction is strong to support the catalog's
weight. Sizes are described using envelope's dimensions. E.g.,
9" x 12" or 6" x 9".
Cathode Ray Tube: See CRT.
CB (coated back): Top sheet in a carbonless form.
CCD: Charge-Coupled Devices: A type of digital camera technology
in which the image is focused on an array of sensing pixels. The
small size of the array itself - approximately microchip size -
and the high resolution _ around 1,000 to 1,018 pixels - of these
cameras have greatly enhanced "image acquisition" capabilities
and opened up exciting new applications in manufacturing quality
control and in medicine.
CD: Compact Disc: A standard medium for storage of digital
data in machine-readable form, accessible with a laser-based reader.
CDs are 4-3/4'' in diameter. CDs are faster and more accurate than
magnetic tape for data storage. Faster, because even though data
is generally written on a CD contiguously within each track, the
tracks themselves are directly accessible. This means the tracks
can be accessed and played back in any order. More accurate, because
data is recorded directly into binary code; mag tape requires data
to be translated into analog form. Also, extraneous noise (tape
hiss) associated with mag tape is absent form CDs.
CD-ROM: Compact Disc Read Only Memory. A data storage system
using CDs as the medium. CD-ROMs hold mor than 600 megabytes of
Center Seam Envelope: See as Catalog.
CEPS: Color Electronic Prepress System. A computer based
system for the graphics art industry that electronically simulates
the traditionally labor intensive or cumbersome tasks associated
with page makeup and color image manipulation.
CF (coated front): Receiver sheet in a carbonless form.
CFB (coated front & back): Intermediate sheets in a
Chroma: Attribute of a color that determines its relative
strength, or saruration. In color space, the distance away from
Chromatic Aberration: In photographic or lithographic process
lens, the result of the unwanted dispersion of light so that colors
of the white light spectrum are focused on slightly different distances
on a single plane. Lenses which have been corrected for this problem
are said to be achromatic.
CIE: Acronym for commission inrernationale de l'eclairage
(international commission of illumination), a standards-setting
organization for color measurement.
Cielab: Internationally accepted color space model used
as a standard to define color within the graphic arts industry,
as well as other industries. The three-dimensional model designates
l for lightness axis, a for the red-green axis and b for the yellow-blue
Clasp Envelope: Like a Catalog envelope, but includes a
metal clasp for temporary closure. May also have glue on the flap
for a more permanent seal.
CMYK: Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black. The four so-called
process colors (technically, they are "subtractive" colors)
that are used in four-color printed reproduction. In desktop publishing
it's one of the color models; the others being HSB, PMS and RGB.
Coated Free Sheet: A paper containing less than 10% groundwood
Coin Envelope: Small Catalog envelope.
Cold Color: In printing and separations, colors which are
on the bluish or greenish side. By using a print viewing filter
kit an additive or subtractive solution may be found if a color
correction is required.
Color gamut: Range of colors that can be formed by all
combinations of a given set of light sources or colorants of a
color reproduction system.
Color Bars: See control strips
Color Model: How you describe a color. Imagine trying to
explain "red" to a blind person. You can't, without a
prearranged "language." Color models are those languages.
See CMYK, HSB, PMS and RGB.
Color proof: Image created using process color inks, pigments
or dyes to predict the appearance of the final printed sheet.
Color separation: Process of dividing colors of a continuous-tone
color original by making separate digital files and/or screened
film intermediates for each colorcyan, magenta, yellow and black.
The original image is reproduced by using separate printing plates
for each color which contain the proportional amounts of cyan,
magenta, yellow and black of the original.
Color space: Scheme for representing color as data. Most
color space models define color in three dimensions.
Color space coordinates: Axes used to define the location
of a color in three-dimensional color space.
Commercial Envelope (Diagonal Seam): These are a group
of envelopes most businesses use every day including #9, #10, #11,
etc. (See envelope size guide.)
Commercial Registration: Color printing on which misregistration
is allowable within +/- one row of dots.
Composed Files: A PostScript file that represents color
pages containing picture elements specified in terms of red, green,
and blue (RGB) or cyan, magenta, yellow, and black (CYMK) color
space, as opposed to black and white "gray level" pages
which represent separations.
Composite: The black and white proof of a publication or,
for a color publication, one sheet per publication page (rather
than separate sheets for each overlay) printed on a color printer.
Compression: A software or hardware process that "shrinks" images
so they occupy less storage space, and can be transmitted faster
and easier. Generally accomplished by removing the bits that define
blank spaces and other redundant data, and replacing them with
a smaller algorithm that represents the removed bits.
Cones: Photoreceptors in the retina of the human eye that
are sensitive to high light levels. The eyes have three sets of
cones, each sensitive to a portion of the visible color spectrumred
light, green light and blue light.
Configuration: The specific assemblage of components and
devices that make up the hardware components of a complete system.
Contact Print: A photographic same size copy made by exposure
of a sensitized emulsion in contact with the transparency, negative
or positive with the exposing light passing through the master
Contact Screen: a photographically-made halftone screen
having a dot structure of a graded density, used in a vacuum contact
situation with a high contrast (litho) frame.
Contiguous: Placed adjacently; one after another.
Continuous-tone image: Photographic image that shows a
continuous density range between the lighter and darker areaswithout
Contrast: The tonal gradation between highlights, middletones,
and shadows in an original or a reproduction. The visual relationship
of the original to the reproduction when comparing white to black
Control Chart: A graphic technique for identifying whether
an operation or process is in or out of control and tracking the
performance of that operation or process against calculated control
and warning limits.
Control Strips: Series of color bars and percent tints
placed just outside final image area; used to help maintain consistency
during print runs.
Convergence: In an RGB monitor, where red, green and blue
signals all "converge" in one pixel. At full brightness,
the RGB pixel in convergence would be white.
Copy: Any furnished material that is to be used in the
production of printing.
CPI: Characters Per Inch. The density of characters per
inch on tape or paper. See pitch.
Crop: In order to eliminate portions of the copy, photograph
or artwork, cropmarks are placed on the original or overlay to
indicate which portions are to be eliminated. Careful cropping
can save money in the final separation stage because color separations
are billed for their final reproduction size on film, not just
the portion being used at the printing stage.
CRT: Cathode Ray Tube. The glass, vacuum display device
found in television sets and computer terminals.
Cursor: The symbol on a screen that shows where the next
activity will take place. Graphics programs often change the shape
of the cursor, depending on what action the computer is programmed
to take next.
Cyan: One of the colored inks used in four-color printing.
One of the subtractive process colors; reflects blue and green
and absorbs red. [ back to top
D50 Illumination: Graphic arts standard illumination in
the united states. A list of numbers that define the spectral energy
curve for a color temperature of 5ooo° kelvin.
Data: According to AT&T Bell Labs: Data is "A
representation of facts, concepts or instructions in a formalized
manner, suitable for communication, interpretation or processing."
Data Communications: The movement of data between points,
including all the manual and machine operations necessary for this
movement. Contrast with data transfer.
Data Compression: Reducing the amount of electronic "space" data
takes up. Methods include replacing blank spaces with a character
count, or replacing redundant data with shorter stand-in "codes".
No matter how data is compressed, it must be decompressed before
it can be used.
Data File: Any file created within an application: a word
processing document, a spreadsheet, a database file, a chart, etc.
Also known as a document.
Data Shift: In color process printing, it describes a shift
in one of the channels of data that comprise the image file and
could cause inconsistent color in some area of the image.
Data Transfer: The movement of data inside a computer system.
Database: Data that has been organized and structured in
a disciplined fashion, so that access to information of interest
is as quick as possible. Database management programs form the
foundation for most document storage indexing systems.
DCS: Desktop Color Separation. Developed by Quark. A DCS
file is composed of five files. The main file is a composite with
pointers to separation files and a low-resolution PICT preview
file. There are four separations files, one for each process color.
DDCP: Direct Digital Color Proofing, a prepress proofing
method which creates color proofs without the need for film or
plates by using only digital data.
Decompress: To reverse the procedure conducted by compression
software, and thereby return compressed data to its original size
Decrement: In color process printing, it describes the
decrease of a brightness, hue, or saturation value in an image.
Delete: Describes the action of discarding data from memory
Densitometer: In photography, a sensitive photoelectric
instrument which measures the density of photographic images or
of colors. In lithography, a reflection densitometer is used to
measure the density of the ink colors to determine they are consistent
throughout the run. A transmission densitometer can be used to
check reproduction dot sizes in order to maintain quality assurance
in color. Both measure optical density and are considerably more
sensitive and accurate than is the human eye.
Density: Measurement of the light-absorbing quality of
a photographic or printed image.
Density range: Difference in density between the minimum
and maximum density of an image. Density range is the difference
in density reading from the shadow area to the highlight area on
a film negative, film positive or printed sheet. See tonal range.
Descenders: A typographic term for the portion of lowercase
characters that falls below the main body of the letter. The lower
case letters g, j, p, q and y have descenders.
Desktop: Slang for any computer function that can be done
on a stand-alone PC, rather than a larger, more powerful, computer.
Desktop Publishing: The term applied to the creation of
printed documents using a PC. The documents may be printed directly
from the desktop publishing application software (usually with
a desktop laser printer), or prepared for a commercial printing
process. Do not confuse with "electronic publishing," which
refers to electronically preparing documents which are to be read
by electronic means.
Detail Contrast: In electronic scanning, the ability to
increase the apparent detail contrast from light to dark and from
dark to light by simple electronic manipulation. This produces
an increased visual contrast on edge sharpness, thereby enhancing
the image. The particular control section of a scanner that carries
out this particular function is the unsharp masking area (USM).
Developer: The chemical in a photographic developer that
converts exposed silver halide to visible black metallic silver.
Device Independent: A program or file format that can be
used with two or more different computing devices and produce identical
results. For example, a page saved in PostScript format should
be printable on an HP LaserPrinter IV or on a Linotronic output
Dialog Box: A rectangular box that either requests or provides
information. Many dialog boxes present options to choose from before
Windows can carry out a command. Some dialog boxes present warnings
or explain why a command can't be completed.
Differential Spacing: In typography, allowing letters to
take up varying horizontal space in relation to their widths. For
example, and "i" takes up less space than an uppercase "W".
Opposite of fixed spacing, where each letter is assigned the same
space, regardless of its shape or width.
Digital: The use of binary code to record information. "Information" can
be text in a binary code like ASCII, or scanned images in a bit
mapped form, or sound in a sampled digital form, or video. Recording
information digitally has many advantages over its analog counter
part, mainly ease in manipulation and accuracy in transmission.
Digital Camera: The newest generation of video cameras
transform visual information (lightness and darkness) into pixels,
then translate the pixel's level of light into a number (or, in
the case of color, into three numbers _ one for the level of red,
green and blue in the pixel). These digital images can then be
manipulated pixel by pixel to create exciting new applications
in video and film production. They can also be compressed, stored
and transmitted in more or less the same manner as traditional
Digital File: A art file that resides on disk, usually
in a native application format. See also CREF.
Digital Proof: A proofing system that does not include
the use of film. Data is sent to a printer and imaged directly
onto a paper-based material. There are several limitations of a
digital proof: 1) they do not use the film that will be used to
produce plates, and thus are open to interpretation of the output
device, 2) few of these devices print in the same dot pattern as
is utilized in the printing process, and 3) the ink utilized in
these printers is not representative of the inks used in the printing
process and can show a vast color range and density not attainable
on a printing press.
Digitize: To convert an image or signal into binary code.
Visual images are digitized by scanning them and assigning a binary
code to the resulting vector or raster graphics data.
Dipthong: In typesetting, two vowels which are joined to
form a single character, also known as digraph. A special form
Disk: Same as magnetic disk. A round, flat magnetic recording
medium with one or more layers deposited on the surface which data
can be recorded onto.
Disk Drive: A device containing motors, electronics and
other gadgetry for storing (writing) and retrieving (reading) data
on a disk. A hard disk drive is one which is generally not removable
from the machine. A floppy disk drive accepts removable disk cartridges.
Disk Space: The amount of bytes on a disk available for
recording or storing data.
Display PostScript: The PostScript command set that renders
images directly to the screen.
Display Type: Used for headlines and advertising copy,
it is larger than 14 points.
Dithering: Simulating gray tones by altering the size,
arrangement or shape of background dots.
DNS: Domain Name Service. An Internet service that maps
sybolic names to IP addresses by distributing queries among the
available pool of DNS servers.
Domain: For DNS, a group of workstations and servers that
share a single group name.
Dot: The individual element of a halftone. Its size (density)
can be related to the density of the original used to produce the
halftone dot. The size of the dot is indicated by the percentage
of the area it occupies from zero to on hundred percent. It may
be several shapes including round, square or elliptical.
Dot Gain: An increase in the size of halftone dots that
may occur as a result of errors or imperfections in any of the
steps between screening an image and printing it onto paper. Common
causes of mechanical dot gain are incorrect plate exposure, excessive
tack or incorrect viscosity of printing ink, excessive ink film
thickness, internal reflection of the ink, or too much pressure
between the blanket roller and the impression cylinder.
Dot Pitch: The distance of one phosphor dot in a CRT to
the nearest phosphor dot of the same color on the adjacent line.
Dot Spread: In printing, a defect in which dots print larger
than they should, causing darker tones or colors. (See dot gain)
Double Burn: The merging of two films into one using a
contact screen camera. It is usually used to bring the black text
into the black separation.
Download: The transfer of data from a computer or telecommunications
network to another electronic device or storage medium.
DPI: Dots Per Inch. A measurement of output device resolution
and quality. Measures the number of dots a printer can print per
inch both horizontally and vertically. A 600 dpi printer can print
360,000 (600 by 600) dots on one square inch of paper.
Drag: A function of the mouse by which an element on the
screen of a monitor is moved with the cursor, while holding down
the mouse button and moving the mouse.
Drop Capital: At the beginning of a paragraph, the initial
capital letter can be modified to make a drop capital by descending
the letter below the baseline of the first line of text.
Dummy: a preliminary layout showing the position of illustrations
and text as they are to appear in the final reproduction. A set
of blank pages made up in advance to show the size, shape, color,
form and general style of a piece of printing.
Duotone: A two color halftone reproduction from a one-color
photograph used by more than one running process. The operating
system maps the DLLs into the process's address space when the
process is started up or while it is running. Dynamic link libraries
are stored in files with the DLL file extension. [
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Editable PostScript: PostScript commands that have been
translated into a text file, which can then be changed without
the need to use the applications program from which the PostScript
file was originally created.
Electromagnetic energy spectrum: Range of wavelengths or
frequencies of radiant energy including, in order of increasing
wavelength, cosmic-ray photons, gamma rays, x-rays, ultraviolet
radiation, microwaves, radiowaves, heat, and electrical current.
Electronic Mail (EMail): A message service that uses telecommunications
and electronics to deliver soft or hard copy information.
Electrophotographic Printing: The technology used in copy
machines and laser printers. An electrically charged drum is hit
with small beams of light Wherever the light hits, the drum loses
its electrical charge. When toner is applied, its sticks to the
non-charged parts of the drum. Paper is then pressed against the
drum, and the toner adheres to the paper. The paper is then heated
to "set" the toner.
Electrostatic Printing: Printing process that uses a special
paper which is charged by an electron beam. The tone sticks to
the charged areas. Used in large-image plotters.
Ellipsis: Three equally spaced periods, used to indicate
omitted or missing material, especially in quoted text.
Elliptical Dot: Also called a chain dot. Used in a halftone
to achieve some of the smoothness of a round dot without sacrificing
the sharpness of the square dot. This dot shape improves the gradation
of middletones and especially skin tones. Most useful in reproducing
color for cosmetic and fashion illustrations.
Em: A relative measurement of horizontal space _ it's a
measurement because it is equal to the width of a capital "M".
It's "relative" because it's the width of the capital "M" in
whatever font and size you're dealing with.
Emulation Mode: A mode in which a device such as a printer
can imitate the behavior of a different device.
Emulsion Side: In photography, the side of the film coated
with the silver halide emulsion which faces the lens during exposure.
It is the most susceptible to scratches. In photographic sheet
film, there is usually a code notch indicating what type of film
it is as well as which side the emulsion is on.
En: Half the width on an em.
Encapsulated PostScript (EPS): An image description format.
EPS translates graphics and text into descriptions to a printer
of how to draw them. The font and pictures themselves need not
be loaded into the printer; they've been "encapsulated" into
the EPS code.
Encode: The term used to describe the translation of information,
such as text or photographs, into binary code.
Envelope Formats: The industry has standardized to simply
the process of specifying envelopes.
Enhanced Metafile: An intermediate file format, consisting
of GDI objects and commands, used in the Windows 95 printing system.
End Caps: Symbols, such as an arrowhead or bullet, used
to cap the end of a line of text.
Erase: Erasing computer memory changes specified binary
data in storage with zeros or other null codes. Erasing has the
effect of clearing the storage area.
Ethernet: A network access method developed by Digital
Equipment Corporation, Intel, and Xerox in the early 1970s, Ethernet
is the most widely used local-area network technology available
today. This standard is capable of linking up to 1024 nodes.
Expansion Slot: A long, thin socket mounted in an expansion
bus, which accepts an expansion card.
Export: To save data in a form that another program can
read. If you are using an illustration program, you may choose
to export your work to a desktop publishing programs as an EPS
file, for example.
Exposure: The step in photographic processes during which
light produces an image on the light-sensitive film coating. [
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Facsimile Transmission (Fax): The process of scanning graphic
images to convert them into electronic signals, alter and adjust
these signals to correctly reproduce the original, then transmit
these electronic signals to produce a recorded likeness of the
original on a photo sensitive material.
FAQ: Frequently Asked Questions. A list of common questions
with their answers, maintained by most special interest groups
on the Internet as a way of lowering the frequency of basic technical
Family Name: The name of a given font family.
Field: In a database, the individual items of related information,
for example, policyholder's name, address, social security number,
etc. Together the fields make up a record.
File: A document or application that has been given a name.
File Format: The structure or arrangement of data stored
in a file.
File Transfer Protocol (FTP): The standard method of transferring
files using TCP/IP. FTP allows you to transfer files between dissimilar
computers, with preservation of binary data, and optional translation
of text file formats.
Fill: An electronic function that alters a selected area,
usually within a closed line work image, with a color, gray tone,
Film: A negative or positive, photographic or lithographic
record made on a light sensitive material.
Filter: In color separations and photography, a colored
piece of gelatin used over or between the lens to alter the hue,
color or to correct for spectral imbalances.
Fixed-Width Font: A font in which all characters have uniform
Fixing: Chemical action following development to remove
unexposed silver halides, to make the image stable and insensitive
to further exposure. It must be noted here that if inadequate washing
is done after fixing it will accelerate the degeneration of the
print or film quality more so than usually occur over a given length
Flat: In offset lithography, the assembled composite of
negatives or positives, mostly on mylar, orange vinyl, used for
making further composites or platemaking. There are one set of
flats for each color. Also, a photograph, transparency or halftone
that is lacking in contrast.
Flat Bed: A flat bed optical input or output device (scanner
or plotter) transfers images by means of a flat plane rather than
a revolving cylinder.
Flop: Turning a negative over to create a mirror image.
In an electronic environment, flop or mirror is a function that
creates a mirror image, either horizontally or vertically, of an
image or a portion of an image.
Floppy Disk: A thin, flexible plastic disk which has been
coated with iron oxide, capable of storing computer data as a magnetic
pattern. Almost all programs are sold on floppy disks, which are
also used as a convenient way of swapping data between computers.
Folio: A page number.
Footer: A design element that prints at the bottom of a
page, often showing the publication's name and page number.
Font: A graphical design applied to all numerals, symbols
and characters in the alphabet. A font usually comes in different
sizes and provides different styles, such as bold, italic, and
underlining for emphasizing text.
Foreground: The immediately accessible portion of the central
processing unit (CPU), which has priority over any background functions
Form: An assembly of flats occupying a single side on a
Format: In photography, the size of the original which
is being used to make separations. Smaller formats are 35mm and
2 1/2 square formats. Larger formats are 4x5 and larger. In printing,
the size, style, type, page, margins, printing requirements, etc.,
of a printed piece.
Four-color process printing: Process of reproducing a full-color
image by overprinting screened separations for each of the three
process colors (cyan, magenta, yellow) and black using process
Frame: A border, outlining and enhancing photos, type,
or tint blocks, that has a specified thickness, style and color.
FreeHand: A computer illustration program developed by
the former Aldus Corporation that was then sold to Adobe. Now developed
and maintained by Macromedia.
Frequency: The lines per inch (lpi) in a halftone screen.
FTP: See File Transfer Protocol.
Full-Page Display: A video monitor capable of showing an
entire 8 1/2 X 11 inch page. [
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Galley Proof: A proof of text copy before it is formatted
for the page.
Gamma: A measure of contrast in photographic images. A
densimetric evaluation of graph paper indicating highlight to shadow
contrast in terms of density values, plotted on a graph to establish
the maximum and the minimum, the difference between them being
Gamut: Every color combination that is possible to produce
with a given set of colorants on a given device or system.
Gang Separations: A group of originals containing slides
or prints of the same type, emulsion, highlight, middletone and
shadow characteristics which will all be separated together as
one piece. Highlights, middletones and shadows are set up for the
average, Originals falling above or below the average will be lighter
or darker than the average. There are no special tone, or color
corrections done to individual pieces, because the separation is
based on average readings found in the average of all the originals.
Request for corrections from gang separations will result in additional
Garbled: Corrupted data.
GIF: Graphics Interchange Format. A compressed graphics
file format patented by Unisys, and widely used in the online environment.
Giga: Meaning billion or thousand million. In computers,
it is actually 1,024 times mega and is actually 1,073,741,824.
One thousand gigas is a tera.
GIGO: Garbage In, Garbage Out. If the input data is wrong
or inaccurate, the output data will be inaccurate or wrong. GIGO
is often the problem with data entered by hand into computer systems.
Gradation: In photographic originals and lithographic reproductions,
the range of tones from the brightest highlights to the deepest
Grain: In photography, the grain is the granular particles
in photographic emulsion of an original print or negative. The
printing process causes the grain to become more apparent than
in the original.
Graphics: For the purposes of this glossary, graphics are
one of the three types of data that can be created, stored retrieved
and manipulated (the other two are text and documents). Graphics
are basically pictures and drawings, either created by computer
or entered into the computer by scanning or photographing. See
vector graphics, raster graphics and bit map for more.
Graphic Resolution: The level of quality of which graphics
are printed. The higher the resolution, the better the quality
of the printed graphics.
Gray Balance: In four-color process printing, proper proportions
of the three-process colors (yellow, magenta and cyan) create the
appearance of neutral gray with no apparent hue.
Gray Component Replacement (GCR): A technique for removing
some or all of the cyan, magenta and yellow from color separations.
If properly executed, the reproduction will appear the same or
better than one that used conventional color reproduction without
Gray scale: The spectrum, or range, of shades of black
an image has. Scanners' and terminals' gray scales are determined
by the number of gray shades, or steps, they can recognize and
reproduce. A scanner that can only see a gray scale of 16 will
not produce as accurate an image as one that distinguishes a gray
scale of 256.
Gray Value: The number (usually between 0 and 256) that
specifies a particular shade of gray.
Gripper Margin: The unprintable blank edge on which the
paper is gripped as it passes through a printing press. Usually
measures a half inch or less.
Gum for Live Stamp: When postage stamps are applied prior
to filling an envelope, the moisture from the stamp can inadvertently
moisten the envelope flap and cause the envelope to be sealed.
Gum for live stamp process avoids this.
Gummed or Seal Gum: Refers to the standard glue-when-moistened
sealing method on envelopes.
Gutter: The two inner margins of facing pages of a publication. [
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H&J: Hyphenation and Justification. The arrangement
of text evenly in a column (justification), usually requiring the
breaking of words at their appropriate syllable breaks (hyphenation).
For this feature, desktop publishing programs include large dictionaries
which instruct where hyphens can be correctly placed.
Hairline: A .25-point rule.
Halftone image: Ink-printable image produced using a contact
screen, or a digital scanner, to convert a continuous-tone image
into a fixed-grid pattern of different-sized dots which creates
the illusion of tones.
Hanging Indent: The first line of a paragraph specified
to start to the left of the other lines in the paragraph.
Hard Copy: A printed paper copy of output in readable form.
It is also a transparency film or photograph of an image displayed
on the monitor.
Hard Disk: A mass storage device for digital data. One
or more magnetic platters in a single casing, it can store data
more precisely and access it more quickly than other forms of magnetic
Hard Dot: see "soft" dot.
Header: Text that appears at the top of every page of a
document when it is printed.
Hierarchial: A form of document or file structure, also
known as a tree structure, where all elements except the root have
parents, and all elements may or may not have children.
High Key: An image that mainly consists of highlights and
High Resolution: Basically, any image that is displayed
in better quality by increasing the number of dots, or pixels,
per inch than normal. Usually refers to better quality computer
displays, but can describe printer quality as well. Called hi-res,
Highlights: Area of an original image or reproduction with
the smallest printing dots and/or the least density. On a printed
sheet, the area with minimum ink coverage.
Horizontal Scale: The alteration or horizontal dimension
in characters without changing height.
HSB: Hue Saturation Brightness. To artists, it is an abbreviation
for all of a color's characteristics: hue (the pigment); the saturation
(the amount of pigment); and brightness (the amount of white included).
With the HSB model, all colors can be defined by expressing their
levels of hue, saturation and brightness in percentages.
HSL Image: A red, green, blue (RGB) image displayed on
a video monitor in three channels (hue, saturation, brightness),
although only one channel is displayed at a time.
HTTP: HyperText Transfer Protocol. The TCP\IP-based communications
protocol developed for use on the WWW, HTTP defines how clients
and servers communicate over the Web.
Hue: Attribute of a color that describes its dominant wavelength
(such as red, yellow, green, blue) and distinguishes it
From other colors. The wavelength of a color in its purest state
without the addition of white or black. In color space, hue is
arrayed around the center axis.
Hue Error: The difference between the printed color and
the ideal color which it is supposed to represent. For example,
cyan ink used in four-color process work should ideally reflect
all the green and blue frequencies of light that fall on it, while
it should absorb all of the red frequencies. In reality, the ink
will not achieve this state of perfection.
Hyphenation: Two classes of hyphenation are used in preparing
documentation: editorial and typesetting. Editorial hyphenation
considers hyphenation for compound words and prefixes; judgements
are made on context and standard use of the language at a given
time. Typesetting hyphenation considers the breaking of words by
syllable at the end of lines to create an elegant text design. [
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Icon: A graphical representation of various elements in
Windows, such as disk drives, applications and documents.
Illustrator: A computer illustration program developed
by Adobe Systems, Inc.
Image: The computerized representation of a picture or
Image Enhancements: Electronic functions, such as shading,
highlighting and zooming, that accent an image or portion of an
Image Processing: Think of "data processing":
it refers to the manipulation of raw data to solve some problem
or enlighten the user in some way not possible without the manipulation.
So it is with image processing. Digitized images which have been "acquired" (scanned,
captured by digital cameras) can be manipulated. The purpose may
be simply to improve the image - change its size, its color, or
simply to touch-up parts of it. But a more important application
of image processing is to compare and analyze images for characteristics
that a human eye alone couldn't perceive. This ability to perceive
minute variations in color, shape and relationship has opened up
applications for image processing in high-speed manufacturing quality
control, criminal forensics, medicine, defense, entertainment and
the graphic arts.
Image Processor: Device that takes input data and changes
it into the proper format for an imaging device _ printer, display,
microform, or computer.
Image Resolution: The fineness or coarseness of an image
as it was digitized, measured as dots-per-inch (DPI).
Imagesetter: An imaging device specially applied to create
type and graphics. Uses either raster or vector techniques to expose
photographic paper or film. Contrasted with a character setter,
which creates only alphanumeric characters by exposing paper or
film through a mask with the shapes of the letters engraved in
Import: To merge text and graphics into a document that
you are currently creating or editing with the aid of a computer
Imposition: Laying out pages in a press form so that they
will be in the correct order after the printed sheet is folded.
In color reproduction, laying out originals in position in order
that all components of a page can be gang scanned in position in
one scan (See gang separation).
Indents: The positions where lines of text begin and end
within the specified margins.
Independent Graphic: A graphic placed in a publication
that is not tied to the text surrounding it.
Indicia: Refers to printing on the upper right corner of
an envelope-usually the postage-paid notice or a box for placement
of a stamp.
In-line Graphic: A graphic that is embedded in a text block
or line of text.
Input Resolution: The number of samples taken at the scanner
per unit of length when digitizing an image. Input resolution is
often set the same as the system resolution. If the image is destined
to be resized, however, the scanner resolution is set to accommodate
interactive enlargement or reduction of the image at the workstation.
Insert: A printed piece prepared for insertion into a publication
or other printed piece. In color separations, the placement of
one piece of color into another.
Insertion Point: The place where text will be inserted
when you type. The insertion point usually appears as a flashing
vertical bar in the application's window or in a dialog box. The
text you type will appear to the left of the insertion point, which
is pushed to the right as you type.
Inside Tint (Security Screen): Envelope has a dark tint
printed on its inside to keep contents protected from snooping.
Custom designs are readily available.
Instance: A particular occurrence of an object, such as
a window, module, named pipe, or DDE session. Each instance has
a unique handle that distinguishes it from other instances of the
Interface: The hardware and software that enables electronic
devices to share information.
Inter-Office Mail: Reusable large envelopes usually with
string ties. Often has a series of punched holes so recipient knows
that envelope contains material.
International Standards Organization. (ISO): The organization
that produces many of the world's standards. Open System Interconnect
(OSI) is only one of the many areas standardized by the ISO.
Internet: The name for a worldwide, TCP/IP-based networked
computing community with millions of users worldwide that links
government, business, research, industry, and
Internet Protocol (IP): The primary network layer protocol
of the TCP/IP protocol suite, IP is probably the most widely used
network protocol in the world. IP is responsible for addressing
and sending TCP packets over the network.
IP Address: Used to identify a node on a network and to
specify routing information on an internetwork. Each node of the
inernetwork must be assigned an unique IP address, which is made
up of the network ID, plus a unique host ID assigned by the network
administrator. The subnet mask is used to separate an IP address
into the host ID and network ID.
ISP: Internet Service Provider. Any organization that will
provide Internet access to a consumer, usually for a fee. [
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Java: An object-oriented programming language and environment
from Sun Microsystems. Along with C, Java is compiled into an architecture-nuetral
binary object and then interpreted like Perl or Tcl for a specific
JPEG: Joint Photographic Experts Group. A highly compressed
graphics format designed to handle computer images of high resolution
photographs as efficiently as possible.
Justify: The process by which a line of text is spaced
between specified right- and left-hand margins.
Kbs: Kilobytes per second.
Kbyte (K): Kilobyte. One thousand bytes. To a computer,
it's actually 1,024 bytes.
Kelvin, 5000 degrees: Color temperature is frequently used
to describe the color quality of light in terms of degrees of Kelvin.
The lower the temperature the more yellow and red are found the
higher the temperature and the bluer the light will look. 5000
degrees is an average. It is considered to produce reflected or
transmitted colors as close to normal sunlight (as is possible).
In the printing and photographic industries, it is used as a normal
viewing condition for purposes of standardization industry wide.
Fluorescent lights which are 5000 degrees Kelvin with a CRI index
of 90 or more are required.
Kerning: The amount of space between characters, initially
determined by the design of the font. You can adjust the spacing
between to make it more aesthetically pleasing.
Keyline: A black lined area on a layout or art board indicating
a precise area for the placement of a color or black and white
reproduction. It is generally noted specifically to use the
black line to "trap" the photo to the background or
to drop the black line and simply use the keyline to create the
window for a halftone placement.
Keyword: An essential or definitive term that can be used
for indexing data, for later search and retrieval.
Knockout: An area on a printer's spot-color overlay in
which the overlapping color is deleted so the background color
shows through. [ back to top ]
L*A*B*: A system for describing, measuring, and controlling
color, using hue, luminance, and brightness established by the
International Committee on Illumination (CIE).
LAN: Local Area Network. High-speed transmissions over
twisted pair, coax, or fiber optic cables that connect terminals,
personal computers, mainframe computers, and peripherals together
at distances of about 1 mile or less.
Landscape: Page or monitor orientation in which the page
width exceeds the page length. Contrast with portrait.
Laser: The acronym for light amplification by stimulated
emission by radiation. The laser is an intense light beam with
a very narrow band width that can produce images by electronic
impulses. It makes possible imaging by remote control from computers
or facsimile transmissions.
Latex Seal Envelope: Any envelope with self-sealing adhesive.
Requires no moisture.
Layout: The drawing or sketch of a proposed printed piece.
In platemaking, a sheet indicating the settings or distance between
images when step and repeat processes are involved.
LCD: Liquid Cyrstal Display. An electronic component containing
a tiny quantity of liquid that crystallizes (turns black) when
a small electrical current passes through it, and returns to a
liquid state when the current is switched off.
Leaders: Dashes or dots arranged in a row to guide the
eye across the page. Leaders are commonly used in tabular work.
Leading: Pronounced "ledding". A typesetting
term for the distance from baseline to baseline between lines of
Letterspacing: Small amounts of extra space inserted between
letters in typeset text, to improve their appearance and readability
or to fill out a line.
Ligature: Certain letter combinations that appear frequently
together in fonts are combined as one character.
Lightness: Property that distinguishes white from gray
or black, and light color tones from dark color tones. In color
space, lightness/darkness is the center axis. Also called value.
Line Screen: The resolution of a halftone, expressed in
lines per inch.
Line Shot: A negative image, photographed from mechanical
art, that is used for stripping or scanning.
Line Art: Artwork that, unlike a continuous-tone image,
has no gradations of tone and, therefore, does not require screening
for reproduction in print.
Link: In desktop publishing, joining text boxes so that
text will flow from box to box. It also refers to hardware/software
which allows otherwise
incompatible systems to pass data back and forth.
Lo-res: Short for low resolution. Low quality reproduction
because of a small number of dots or lines per inch.
Look Up Table: A set of values in tabular form for input
or output relationships. Such tables are most often associated
with color calibration issues and determining how a color system
translates from one color space to another.
Low Key: Describes an image that mainly consists of midtones
LPI: Lines per inch. Measure of resolution for halftones.
Luminance: One of the components of an HSL (hue, saturation,
luminance) RGB (red, green, blue) image on a video monitor. It
is the highest of the RGB values plus the lowest of the RGB values,
dived by two. [ back to top ]
M: One Thousand
M Weight: The weight of one thousand sheets of paper measured
in that sheets basic size.
Macro: A series of special instructions for a program or
a metalanguage that allows a name to be substituted for a repeated
sequence of operations or text within a document or program.
Magenta: One of the subtractive primaries the hue of which
is used for one of the 4 color process inks. It reflects blue and
red light and absorbs green light. Often confused with the additive
primary color or red, especially when requesting color corrections.
Magenta Screen: A dyed contact screen. Generally only used
in black and white reproduction of halftones and not used in color,
except in indirect separations.
Mask: In color separations, an intermediate lithographic
negative or positive used in color correction and employed during
the direct screening method. For use in making color corrections,
a mask made from rubylith or film is used to alter precise areas
of tone or color on litho dupe film.
Match Art: In color reproduction most clients ask for match
art reproduction. The client submits artwork or photography containing
many colors and tones and asks that all colors and tones be reproduced
exactly. This however is an unusually difficult task since it is
virtually impossible to recreate all colors and tones from only
four printing inks: cyan, magenta, yellow and black. It is therefore
necessary for clients to pre-visualize how certain colors and tones
will render when using process inks and dots created from the continuous
Matte Finish: In printing paper - a dull finish without
any gloss or luster. In photography - a color or black and white
paper with low gloss or luster which is most ideal for retouching.
Maximum Density: The measurement of the blackest or darkest
area of an image on film; that is, the area with the maximum ability
to stop light.
Mechanical: An assembly of type and/or artwork, usually
on paper stuck to a sheet of art board.
Megabyte: Approximately one million bytes.
Metameric Pairs: Two colors that are different yet look
the same when viewed under a particular light source. In technical
terms, the colors have the same set of color coordinates but different
spectral reflectance curves.
Metamerism: The tendency for color to shift in hue as it
is viewed under different lighting conditions.
Midtones: Tonal values of an original or reproduction that
fall midway between the highlight and shadow tones.
Mil: One one-thousandth (1/1000) of an inch; used to describe
paper and tape thickness.
MIME: Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions. Extensions
to the RFC822 mail message format to permit more complex data and
file types than just plain text.
Minimum Density: The measurement of the whitest, or lightest
area of an image on film.
Mirror: The process or tool that copies a selected object
and inverts it by reflecting it across an imaginary line on the
Modem: Short for modulator-demodulator. Device that allows
digital signals to be transmitted and received over analog telephone
Moire: In color process printing, the pattern which exists
because of one screen angle overprinting another or several other
screen angles. Sometimes the moire pattern becomes objectionable
because the screen angles are less than 30 degrees, creating an "interference
effect." However, the yellow screen in process color is always
less than 30 degree angle from other colors but since the yellow
dots are virtually invisible to the eye these patterns are unseen.
Monospaced: A type font where all characters have the same
Montage: In artwork, several photographs ("C" prints)
or several transparencies (all the same reproduction size) are
pasted or taped to an art board or acetate in order to create a
pleasing layout which is capable of being separated in one piece.
Originals should contain similar highlight, middletone and shadow
Mouse: Hand-driven input and pointing device for personal
Multiples: (see also Number Up) Placing more than 1 image
of the same product onto a single form.
Mylar: In image assembly; a polyester based film specifically
suited for stripping film upon because of its mechanical strength
and dimensional stability.