Graphic Arts Dictionary

Accelerator board: A printed circuit board added to a PC to increase its performance speeds. For example, if you have a Macintosh containing a Motorola 68000 CPU, you can purchase an accelerator board containing the faster 68030 CPU.

Access: The process of obtaining data from, or transferring data to a storage device, register or RAM.

Access Time: The amount of time it takes a computer to locate an area of memory for data storage or retrieval.

Achromatic: Without color. A lens which refracts light of all colors equally is said to be achromatic.

Acid Paper: Nonpermanent papers (PH below 7.0).

Active Display Area: The portion of an image that falls inside the viewing area of a computer monitor.

ADB: Apple Desktop Bus: The Macintosh plug-in port where the keyboard, mouse, trackball, graphics tablet, etc. are connected.

Additive Color System: Means of producing an image by combining red, green and blue light, which are each approximately one-third of the visible spectrum. When added together, red and green light produce yellow; red and blue light produce magenta; blue and green light produce cyan. When added together in equal amounts, red, green and blue light produce white light. Examples of the use of additive color are television screens and computer monitors.

Additive Primaries: Are red, blue and green. In color reproduction, equal parts of red, blue, and green light give us the sensation of white light. These colors are used in the form of filters in order to create the complementary colors, cyan, yellow and magenta.

Adhesives: In paper, glues that bind coated paper ingredients together.

Adobe Type Manager: Software from Adobe Systems for Macintosh and IBM PC’s that eliminates jagged edges on screen fonts and allows inexpensive laser printers to reproduce postscript fonts accurately and clearly. 1-800-64-ADOBE

AFP: AppleTalk Filing Protocol. The protocol that non-Apple networks need to use in order to access data in an AppleTalk server.

Air Knife Coating: In paper, coating method wherein a thin blade of air is used to apply coating to the sheet uniformly.

Airmail Boarders: Refers to an envelope with a border of triangles or diamonds printed on the front and back.

Alias: a computer system name that points to another name, instead of an underlying object. Most Web URLs are either wholly or partly aliases (to protect the underlying file system on the Web server they point at).

Aliasing: Condition when graphics, either constructed with lines (vectored) or dots (bitmapped), show jagged edges under magnification.

Alkaline Paper: Permanent papers (PH of 7.5 – 8.2).

America Online: An online information provider, usually known by its initials (AOL), which got its start as a dial up service off the Internet and which has become the largest Internet Service Provider in the world.

Angstrom Unit: A unit of measurement of the length of light waves. It is equal to 1/10 of a millimicron, or one ten-millionth of a millimeter. There are approximately 254,000,000 Angstrom units in an inch.

Animated Graphics: Moving diagrams or cartoons. Often found in the computer-based courseware, animated graphics take up far less disk space than video images.

Annotation: The ability to attach notes to graphics or images by typing them in, using a light pen or digitizing tablet. Useful for clarifying documents or editing images.

Anodized: In paper, refers to grained.

ANSI: American National Standards Institute. A standards-setting, non-government organization which develops standards for “voluntary” use in the United States. Standards set are accepted by vendors in that country. ANSI is located at 1430 Broadway, New York NY 10018, (212)642-4900

Antioffset Powder: Powder which creates a gap between sheets of paper to aid in the ink drying process.

Antique Finish: In paper, a toothy, open texture, usually giving a hand-crafted look.

APR: Automatic Picture Replacement. A Scitex term describing a feature in their systems which allows a low resolution F.P.O. Image to be automatically replaced by its high resolution scan when being output.

Apple: Apple Computer, Inc., Cupertino, CA. Manufacturer of personal computers. Heavy penetration in the graphics/desktop publishing business.

AppleScript: Apple’s scripting language for the Macintosh OS, which is commonly used to program CGIs for Macintosh-based Web servers.

AppleTalk: The Apple networking protocol used to connect Macintosh computers with each other, or with shared devices. AppleTalk, with the appropriate interface card, can also be used to connect to DOS-based platform computers.

Application: Generic term for any software program that carries out a useful task. Word processors and graphics programs are applications.

Applicator Roll Streaks: In paper, streaks on a coated sheet caused by an interruption in coating flow.

Archival: In paper, the stock contains no groundwood or optical brighteners.

Archive: A copy of data on disks, CD-ROM, mag tape, etc., for the long-term storage and later possible access.

Ascender: A typographic term for the portion of lowercase characters that rises above the main body of the letter. The lowercase letters b, d, f, h, k, l and t have ascenders.

ASCII: American Standard Code for Information Interchange. Pronounced AS-key. It’s the most popular method used by small computers for converting letters, numbers, punctuation and control codes into digital form. Once defined, ASCII characters can be recognized and understood by other computers and by communication devices. ASCII represents characters, numbers, punctuation marks or signals in seven binary bits. A capital “C”, for example, is 1000011, while a “3” is 0110011.

ASCII sort: A means of alphabetizing that accounts for capital letters and numbers. To arrange something in an ASCII sort, numbers (digits) come first in numerical order, followed by capital letters in alphabetical order, followed by lower case characters in alphabetical order. This glossary is NOT in an ASCII sort.

Aspect ratio: The relationship of width to height. When an image is displayed on different screens or on paper or microform, the aspect ratio must be kept the same. Otherwise the image will be “stretched” either vertically or horizontally.

Autoflow: In a word processor package, a mode of text placement in which text flows continuously onto successive pages or columns. Additional pages are usually created as needed, depending upon the application.

Back Trimming: Cutting all edges of a sheet of paper with the back (non-beveled) edge of the trimming knife.

Back Up: The process of copying a file or program in the event the original is damaged, lost, or unavailable.

Backing Up: Printing the other side of a printed sheet.

Backup: Copy of current and/or recent data for short-term storage in case of catastrophic loss. Only data changed or added since the backup was made will be lost. Backups should be made frequently. Their usefulness is over when a more recent backup is made. Contrast with Archive.

Bar Code: A system of portraying data in a series of machine-readable lines of varying widths. The “UPC” on consumer items is a bar code. In document management, a bar code is used to encode indexing information. In microfiche, bar codes allow the automatic control of the duplication process, plus contain indexing information. These bar codes usually appear in the last two or three title frames in the first title row of a microfiche.

Baronial Envelope: Nearly square. Has pointy flap. Good for greeting cards and invitations. Not generally machine insertable.

Barrel Fold: Folding a sheet two or more times in the same direction.

Base Alignment: Arrangement that allows columns of text to fall on the same line across the page, regardless of varying sizes of the elements in the columns.

Baseline: The imaginary horizontal line upon which typeset characters appear to rest.

Base Color: A first color used as a background on which other colors are printed.

Base Font: Typeface that graphics software defaults to if no other font is specified.

Basic Size: A standard, predetermined size for a particular type of paper.

Basis Weight: The weight in pounds of a predetermined number of sheets of paper having a specific size for a specific type of paper.

Batch Processing: Conducting a group of computer tasks at one time, instead of throughout the day.

Baud: A unit of data transmission speed.

Bidirectional Printing: A typewriter always prints from left to right. So did the early computer printers. That’s unidirectional printing. The newer computer printers will print from left to right, drop down a line, then print from right to left. Bidirectional. This increase the printer’s speed.

Binders: Additives in the paper making process which increase strength and hardness while decreasing surface fuzz.

Binder’s Creep: The slight but cumulative extension of the edges of each inserted spread or signature beyond the edges of the one that encloses it in a saddle stitch bind.

Binding: The fastening of the assembled sheets or signatures along an edge of a publication.

BIOS: Basic Input/Output System, the portion of the program in some operating systems that tailors it to a specific computer.

Bit: Contraction for Binary DigiT. The smallest unit of data a computer can process. Represents one of two conditions: on or off; 1 or 0, mark or space; something or nothing. Bits are arranged into groups of eight called bytes. A byte is the equivalent of one character.

Bit Map: Representation of characters or graphics by individual pixels, or points of light, dark or color, arranged in row (horizontal) and column (vertical) order. Each pixel is represented by either one bit (simple black & white) or up to 32 bits (fancy high definition color).

Bit-mapped Font: A set of dot patterns that represent all the letters, characters and digits in a type font at a particular size.

Bit-mapped Graphics: Graphic images which are formed with sets of pixels, or dots, with a specific number of dots per inch. Also called raster graphics and paint-type graphics. Contrast with vector graphics.

Bit Specifications: Number of colors or levels of gray that can be displayed a one time. Controlled by the amount of memory in the computer’s graphics controller card. An 8-bit controller can display 256 colors or levels of gray. A 16-bit can show 64,000 colors. A 24-bit controller can display 16.8 million colors or gray levels.

Black and White: Originals or reproductions in a single color, as distinguished from multicolor. When color separations are made, the result is four black and white negatives, each representing a process printing color.

Black Printer: The plate used with the cyan, magenta and yellow plates; often used to enrich the contrast of the final reproduction.

Blade Coating: A paper coating method which results in a very smooth surface.

Blanket: A fabric coated with natural or synthetic rubber which is clamped around the blanket cylinder and which transfers the ink from the press plate to the paper.

Bleed: A printed image (graphic) that extends beyond the trim edge of the paper.

Blueline: A blue-toned photoprint produced from film negatives which is prepared as a proof to check placement of elements of an image or portion of an image on a layout.

Blow Up: A photographic or lithographic term used to explain the enlargement of an original to another larger size.

Booklet Envelope (Open Side): Primarily used for booklets, reports, and files. The flap is on the long side to facilitate ease of stuffing by hand or by machine. Sizes are described using envelope’s dimensions. E.g., 9″ x 12″ or 6″ x 9″.

Boot: A common expression used to describe the process of starting a computer with a bootstrap program.

BPS: Bits Per Second. Measurement of the number of bits transferred in a data communications system. Measures speed.

Brightness: In color, the difference in range from white when compared to dark tones and colors. Could also be considered to be contrast. In photography, brightness is dependent upon correct exposure. Overexposures will be very bright but will have lost highlight density details. Underexposures will be very dense and show little brightness. In paper, the reflectance or brilliance of the paper.

Broadband: Characteristic of any network that multiplexes multiple, independent network carriers onto a single cable. This is usually done using frequency division multiplexing. Broadband technology allows several networks to coexist on one single cable; traffic from one network does not interfere with traffic from another since the “conversations” happen on different frequencies in the “ether,” rather like the commercial radio system.

Browser: An Internet application that lets users access WWW servers and surf the net.

Buffer: Device or allocated memory space used for temporary storage. Printers commonly use buffers, for example, to hold incoming text because the text arrives at a much faster rate than the printer can output.

Bursting Strength: The amount of uniformily applied pressure required to rupture a sheet of paper or corrugated product.

Business Reply Envelope (BRE): Any envelope printed with a return address in its center. Can be designed so sender or receiver pays the postage. Usually has Bar Codes and FIM codes.

Byte: Common unit of computer storage. A byte is eight bits of information, one of which may be a parity bit. Generally, eight bits equal one character. Also called an “octet.”

C1S: Describes paper stock that is coated on one side.

C2S: Describes paper stock that is coated on two sides.

Cache: Pronounced “cash.” Small portion of high-speed memory used for temporary storage of frequently used data. Reduces the time it would take to access that data, since it no longer has to be retrieved from the disk.

CAD: Computer Aided (or Assisted) Design or Drafting. It means using computers to design products or architecture. Sometimes CAD output is sent directly to operate the machinery that makes the product; this is called Computer Aided Manufacturing. See CAM.

Calcium Carbonate: In alkaline paper making, the primary filter; limestone or chalk.

Calendaring: A buffering process completed during paper manufacturing that polishes the sheet surface making it less prone to printing production difficulties.

Caliper: Thickness – Measured in thousandths of an inch.

Camera Ready Artwork: Paste up artwork (mechanical) in which all type is set and sized correctly and pasted up in correct position. All corrections have been made, all color breaks have been made and is complete in every sense. Does not need to have traps and/or reverses built in, but should include keylines and F.P.O. prints for photographs.

Capstan: In imagesetters, a system for moving the film or paper past the laser. The alternative is the drum, in which paper or film is wrapped around a rotating drum.

Carbonless Paper: Chemically coated paper so that duplicate copies can be produced without the use of carbons.

Case Sensitive: Knows the difference between capital letters and lower case letters. A case-sensitive search for “”CASE” would not find “case”.

Cast Coated: Coated paper characterized by a highly polished, mirrorlike surface and exceptional smoothness.

Catalog: Another name for a listing of directories or files stored on a computer or disk.

Catalog Envelope (Open End): Flap is on the envelope’s short side. Its construction is strong to support the catalog’s weight. Sizes are described using envelope’s dimensions. E.g., 9″ x 12″ or 6″ x 9″.

Cathode Ray Tube: See CRT.

CB (coated back): Top sheet in a carbonless form.

CCD: Charge-Coupled Devices: A type of digital camera technology in which the image is focused on an array of sensing pixels. The small size of the array itself – approximately microchip size – and the high resolution _ around 1,000 to 1,018 pixels – of these cameras have greatly enhanced “image acquisition” capabilities and opened up exciting new applications in manufacturing quality control and in medicine.

CD: Compact Disc: A standard medium for storage of digital data in machine-readable form, accessible with a laser-based reader. CDs are 4-3/4” in diameter. CDs are faster and more accurate than magnetic tape for data storage. Faster, because even though data is generally written on a CD contiguously within each track, the tracks themselves are directly accessible. This means the tracks can be accessed and played back in any order. More accurate, because data is recorded directly into binary code; mag tape requires data to be translated into analog form. Also, extraneous noise (tape hiss) associated with mag tape is absent form CDs.

CD-ROM: Compact Disc Read Only Memory. A data storage system using CDs as the medium. CD-ROMs hold mor than 600 megabytes of data.

Center Seam Envelope: See as Catalog.

CEPS: Color Electronic Prepress System. A computer based system for the graphics art industry that electronically simulates the traditionally labor intensive or cumbersome tasks associated with page makeup and color image manipulation.

CF (coated front): Receiver sheet in a carbonless form.

CFB (coated front & back): Intermediate sheets in a carbonless form.

Chroma: Attribute of a color that determines its relative strength, or saruration. In color space, the distance away from neutral.

Chromatic Aberration: In photographic or lithographic process lens, the result of the unwanted dispersion of light so that colors of the white light spectrum are focused on slightly different distances on a single plane. Lenses which have been corrected for this problem are said to be achromatic.

CIE: Acronym for commission inrernationale de l’eclairage (international commission of illumination), a standards-setting organization for color measurement.

Cielab: Internationally accepted color space model used as a standard to define color within the graphic arts industry, as well as other industries. The three-dimensional model designates l for lightness axis, a for the red-green axis and b for the yellow-blue axis.

Clasp Envelope: Like a Catalog envelope, but includes a metal clasp for temporary closure. May also have glue on the flap for a more permanent seal.

CMYK: Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black. The four so-called process colors (technically, they are “subtractive” colors) that are used in four-color printed reproduction. In desktop publishing it’s one of the color models; the others being HSB, PMS and RGB.

Coated Free Sheet: A paper containing less than 10% groundwood pulp.

Coin Envelope: Small Catalog envelope.

Cold Color: In printing and separations, colors which are on the bluish or greenish side. By using a print viewing filter kit an additive or subtractive solution may be found if a color correction is required.

Color gamut: Range of colors that can be formed by all combinations of a given set of light sources or colorants of a color reproduction system.

Color Bars: See control strips

Color Model: How you describe a color. Imagine trying to explain “red” to a blind person. You can’t, without a prearranged “language.” Color models are those languages. See CMYK, HSB, PMS and RGB.

Color proof: Image created using process color inks, pigments or dyes to predict the appearance of the final printed sheet.

Color separation: Process of dividing colors of a continuous-tone color original by making separate digital files and/or screened film intermediates for each colorcyan, magenta, yellow and black. The original image is reproduced by using separate printing plates for each color which contain the proportional amounts of cyan, magenta, yellow and black of the original.

Color space: Scheme for representing color as data. Most color space models define color in three dimensions.

Color space coordinates: Axes used to define the location of a color in three-dimensional color space.

Commercial Envelope (Diagonal Seam): These are a group of envelopes most businesses use every day including #9, #10, #11, etc. (See envelope size guide.)

Commercial Registration: Color printing on which misregistration is allowable within +/- one row of dots.

Composed Files: A PostScript file that represents color pages containing picture elements specified in terms of red, green, and blue (RGB) or cyan, magenta, yellow, and black (CYMK) color space, as opposed to black and white “gray level” pages which represent separations.

Composite: The black and white proof of a publication or, for a color publication, one sheet per publication page (rather than separate sheets for each overlay) printed on a color printer.

Compression: A software or hardware process that “shrinks” images so they occupy less storage space, and can be transmitted faster and easier. Generally accomplished by removing the bits that define blank spaces and other redundant data, and replacing them with a smaller algorithm that represents the removed bits.

Cones: Photoreceptors in the retina of the human eye that are sensitive to high light levels. The eyes have three sets of cones, each sensitive to a portion of the visible color spectrumred light, green light and blue light.

Configuration: The specific assemblage of components and devices that make up the hardware components of a complete system.

Contact Print: A photographic same size copy made by exposure of a sensitized emulsion in contact with the transparency, negative or positive with the exposing light passing through the master image.

Contact Screen: a photographically-made halftone screen having a dot structure of a graded density, used in a vacuum contact situation with a high contrast (litho) frame.

Contiguous: Placed adjacently; one after another.

Continuous-tone image: Photographic image that shows a continuous density range between the lighter and darker areaswithout screening dots.

Contrast: The tonal gradation between highlights, middletones, and shadows in an original or a reproduction. The visual relationship of the original to the reproduction when comparing white to black ranges.

Control Chart: A graphic technique for identifying whether an operation or process is in or out of control and tracking the performance of that operation or process against calculated control and warning limits.

Control Strips: Series of color bars and percent tints placed just outside final image area; used to help maintain consistency during print runs.

Convergence: In an RGB monitor, where red, green and blue signals all “converge” in one pixel. At full brightness, the RGB pixel in convergence would be white.

Copy: Any furnished material that is to be used in the production of printing.

CPI: Characters Per Inch. The density of characters per inch on tape or paper. See pitch.

Crop: In order to eliminate portions of the copy, photograph or artwork, cropmarks are placed on the original or overlay to indicate which portions are to be eliminated. Careful cropping can save money in the final separation stage because color separations are billed for their final reproduction size on film, not just the portion being used at the printing stage.

CRT: Cathode Ray Tube. The glass, vacuum display device found in television sets and computer terminals.

Cursor: The symbol on a screen that shows where the next activity will take place. Graphics programs often change the shape of the cursor, depending on what action the computer is programmed to take next.

Cyan: One of the colored inks used in four-color printing. One of the subtractive process colors; reflects blue and green and absorbs red.

D50 Illumination: Graphic arts standard illumination in the united states. A list of numbers that define the spectral energy curve for a color temperature of 5ooo° kelvin.

Data: According to AT&T Bell Labs: Data is “A representation of facts, concepts or instructions in a formalized manner, suitable for communication, interpretation or processing.”

Data Communications: The movement of data between points, including all the manual and machine operations necessary for this movement. Contrast with data transfer.

Data Compression: Reducing the amount of electronic “space” data takes up. Methods include replacing blank spaces with a character count, or replacing redundant data with shorter stand-in “codes”. No matter how data is compressed, it must be decompressed before it can be used.

Data File: Any file created within an application: a word processing document, a spreadsheet, a database file, a chart, etc. Also known as a document.

Data Shift: In color process printing, it describes a shift in one of the channels of data that comprise the image file and could cause inconsistent color in some area of the image.

Data Transfer: The movement of data inside a computer system.

Database: Data that has been organized and structured in a disciplined fashion, so that access to information of interest is as quick as possible. Database management programs form the foundation for most document storage indexing systems.

DCS: Desktop Color Separation. Developed by Quark. A DCS file is composed of five files. The main file is a composite with pointers to separation files and a low-resolution PICT preview file. There are four separations files, one for each process color.

DDCP: Direct Digital Color Proofing, a prepress proofing method which creates color proofs without the need for film or plates by using only digital data.

Decompress: To reverse the procedure conducted by compression software, and thereby return compressed data to its original size and condition.

Decrement: In color process printing, it describes the decrease of a brightness, hue, or saturation value in an image.

Delete: Describes the action of discarding data from memory or storage.

Densitometer: In photography, a sensitive photoelectric instrument which measures the density of photographic images or of colors. In lithography, a reflection densitometer is used to measure the density of the ink colors to determine they are consistent throughout the run. A transmission densitometer can be used to check reproduction dot sizes in order to maintain quality assurance in color. Both measure optical density and are considerably more sensitive and accurate than is the human eye.

Density: Measurement of the light-absorbing quality of a photographic or printed image.

Density range: Difference in density between the minimum and maximum density of an image. Density range is the difference in density reading from the shadow area to the highlight area on a film negative, film positive or printed sheet. See tonal range.

Descenders: A typographic term for the portion of lowercase characters that falls below the main body of the letter. The lower case letters g, j, p, q and y have descenders.

Desktop: Slang for any computer function that can be done on a stand-alone PC, rather than a larger, more powerful, computer.

Desktop Publishing: The term applied to the creation of printed documents using a PC. The documents may be printed directly from the desktop publishing application software (usually with a desktop laser printer), or prepared for a commercial printing process. Do not confuse with “electronic publishing,” which refers to electronically preparing documents which are to be read by electronic means.

Detail Contrast: In electronic scanning, the ability to increase the apparent detail contrast from light to dark and from dark to light by simple electronic manipulation. This produces an increased visual contrast on edge sharpness, thereby enhancing the image. The particular control section of a scanner that carries out this particular function is the unsharp masking area (USM).

Developer: The chemical in a photographic developer that converts exposed silver halide to visible black metallic silver.

Device Independent: A program or file format that can be used with two or more different computing devices and produce identical results. For example, a page saved in PostScript format should be printable on an HP LaserPrinter IV or on a Linotronic output device.

Dialog Box: A rectangular box that either requests or provides information. Many dialog boxes present options to choose from before Windows can carry out a command. Some dialog boxes present warnings or explain why a command can’t be completed.

Differential Spacing: In typography, allowing letters to take up varying horizontal space in relation to their widths. For example, and “i” takes up less space than an uppercase “W”. Opposite of fixed spacing, where each letter is assigned the same space, regardless of its shape or width.

Digital: The use of binary code to record information. “Information” can be text in a binary code like ASCII, or scanned images in a bit mapped form, or sound in a sampled digital form, or video. Recording information digitally has many advantages over its analog counter part, mainly ease in manipulation and accuracy in transmission.

Digital Camera: The newest generation of video cameras transform visual information (lightness and darkness) into pixels, then translate the pixel’s level of light into a number (or, in the case of color, into three numbers _ one for the level of red, green and blue in the pixel). These digital images can then be manipulated pixel by pixel to create exciting new applications in video and film production. They can also be compressed, stored and transmitted in more or less the same manner as traditional digital data.

Digital File: A art file that resides on disk, usually in a native application format. See also CREF.

Digital Proof: A proofing system that does not include the use of film. Data is sent to a printer and imaged directly onto a paper-based material. There are several limitations of a digital proof: 1) they do not use the film that will be used to produce plates, and thus are open to interpretation of the output device, 2) few of these devices print in the same dot pattern as is utilized in the printing process, and 3) the ink utilized in these printers is not representative of the inks used in the printing process and can show a vast color range and density not attainable on a printing press.

Digitize: To convert an image or signal into binary code. Visual images are digitized by scanning them and assigning a binary code to the resulting vector or raster graphics data.

Dipthong: In typesetting, two vowels which are joined to form a single character, also known as digraph. A special form of ligature.

Disk: Same as magnetic disk. A round, flat magnetic recording medium with one or more layers deposited on the surface which data can be recorded onto.

Disk Drive: A device containing motors, electronics and other gadgetry for storing (writing) and retrieving (reading) data on a disk. A hard disk drive is one which is generally not removable from the machine. A floppy disk drive accepts removable disk cartridges.

Disk Space: The amount of bytes on a disk available for recording or storing data.

Display PostScript: The PostScript command set that renders images directly to the screen.

Display Type: Used for headlines and advertising copy, it is larger than 14 points.

Dithering: Simulating gray tones by altering the size, arrangement or shape of background dots.

DNS: Domain Name Service. An Internet service that maps sybolic names to IP addresses by distributing queries among the available pool of DNS servers.

Domain: For DNS, a group of workstations and servers that share a single group name.

Dot: The individual element of a halftone. Its size (density) can be related to the density of the original used to produce the halftone dot. The size of the dot is indicated by the percentage of the area it occupies from zero to on hundred percent. It may be several shapes including round, square or elliptical.

Dot Gain: An increase in the size of halftone dots that may occur as a result of errors or imperfections in any of the steps between screening an image and printing it onto paper. Common causes of mechanical dot gain are incorrect plate exposure, excessive tack or incorrect viscosity of printing ink, excessive ink film thickness, internal reflection of the ink, or too much pressure between the blanket roller and the impression cylinder.

Dot Pitch: The distance of one phosphor dot in a CRT to the nearest phosphor dot of the same color on the adjacent line.

Dot Spread: In printing, a defect in which dots print larger than they should, causing darker tones or colors. (See dot gain)

Double Burn: The merging of two films into one using a contact screen camera. It is usually used to bring the black text into the black separation.

Download: The transfer of data from a computer or telecommunications network to another electronic device or storage medium.

DPI: Dots Per Inch. A measurement of output device resolution and quality. Measures the number of dots a printer can print per inch both horizontally and vertically. A 600 dpi printer can print 360,000 (600 by 600) dots on one square inch of paper.

Drag: A function of the mouse by which an element on the screen of a monitor is moved with the cursor, while holding down the mouse button and moving the mouse.

Drop Capital: At the beginning of a paragraph, the initial capital letter can be modified to make a drop capital by descending the letter below the baseline of the first line of text.

Dummy: a preliminary layout showing the position of illustrations and text as they are to appear in the final reproduction. A set of blank pages made up in advance to show the size, shape, color, form and general style of a piece of printing.

Duotone: A two color halftone reproduction from a one-color photograph used by more than one running process. The operating system maps the DLLs into the process’s address space when the process is started up or while it is running. Dynamic link libraries are stored in files with the DLL file extension.

Editable PostScript: PostScript commands that have been translated into a text file, which can then be changed without the need to use the applications program from which the PostScript file was originally created.

Electromagnetic energy spectrum: Range of wavelengths or frequencies of radiant energy including, in order of increasing wavelength, cosmic-ray photons, gamma rays, x-rays, ultraviolet radiation, microwaves, radiowaves, heat, and electrical current.

Electronic Mail (EMail): A message service that uses telecommunications and electronics to deliver soft or hard copy information.

Electrophotographic Printing: The technology used in copy machines and laser printers. An electrically charged drum is hit with small beams of light Wherever the light hits, the drum loses its electrical charge. When toner is applied, its sticks to the non-charged parts of the drum. Paper is then pressed against the drum, and the toner adheres to the paper. The paper is then heated to “set” the toner.

Electrostatic Printing: Printing process that uses a special paper which is charged by an electron beam. The tone sticks to the charged areas. Used in large-image plotters.

Ellipsis: Three equally spaced periods, used to indicate omitted or missing material, especially in quoted text.

Elliptical Dot: Also called a chain dot. Used in a halftone to achieve some of the smoothness of a round dot without sacrificing the sharpness of the square dot. This dot shape improves the gradation of middletones and especially skin tones. Most useful in reproducing color for cosmetic and fashion illustrations.

Em: A relative measurement of horizontal space _ it’s a measurement because it is equal to the width of a capital “M”. It’s “relative” because it’s the width of the capital “M” in whatever font and size you’re dealing with.

Emulation Mode: A mode in which a device such as a printer can imitate the behavior of a different device.

Emulsion Side: In photography, the side of the film coated with the silver halide emulsion which faces the lens during exposure. It is the most susceptible to scratches. In photographic sheet film, there is usually a code notch indicating what type of film it is as well as which side the emulsion is on.

En: Half the width on an em.

Encapsulated PostScript (EPS): An image description format. EPS translates graphics and text into descriptions to a printer of how to draw them. The font and pictures themselves need not be loaded into the printer; they’ve been “encapsulated” into the EPS code.

Encode: The term used to describe the translation of information, such as text or photographs, into binary code.

Envelope Formats: The industry has standardized to simply the process of specifying envelopes.

Enhanced Metafile: An intermediate file format, consisting of GDI objects and commands, used in the Windows 95 printing system.

End Caps: Symbols, such as an arrowhead or bullet, used to cap the end of a line of text.

Erase: Erasing computer memory changes specified binary data in storage with zeros or other null codes. Erasing has the effect of clearing the storage area.

Ethernet: A network access method developed by Digital Equipment Corporation, Intel, and Xerox in the early 1970s, Ethernet is the most widely used local-area network technology available today. This standard is capable of linking up to 1024 nodes.

Expansion Slot: A long, thin socket mounted in an expansion bus, which accepts an expansion card.

Export: To save data in a form that another program can read. If you are using an illustration program, you may choose to export your work to a desktop publishing programs as an EPS file, for example.

Exposure: The step in photographic processes during which light produces an image on the light-sensitive film coating.

Facsimile Transmission (Fax): The process of scanning graphic images to convert them into electronic signals, alter and adjust these signals to correctly reproduce the original, then transmit these electronic signals to produce a recorded likeness of the original on a photo sensitive material.

FAQ: Frequently Asked Questions. A list of common questions with their answers, maintained by most special interest groups on the Internet as a way of lowering the frequency of basic technical questions.

Family Name: The name of a given font family.

Field: In a database, the individual items of related information, for example, policyholder’s name, address, social security number, etc. Together the fields make up a record.

File: A document or application that has been given a name.

File Format: The structure or arrangement of data stored in a file.

File Transfer Protocol (FTP): The standard method of transferring files using TCP/IP. FTP allows you to transfer files between dissimilar computers, with preservation of binary data, and optional translation of text file formats.

Fill: An electronic function that alters a selected area, usually within a closed line work image, with a color, gray tone, or pattern.

Film: A negative or positive, photographic or lithographic record made on a light sensitive material.

Filter: In color separations and photography, a colored piece of gelatin used over or between the lens to alter the hue, color or to correct for spectral imbalances.

Fixed-Width Font: A font in which all characters have uniform widths.

Fixing: Chemical action following development to remove unexposed silver halides, to make the image stable and insensitive to further exposure. It must be noted here that if inadequate washing is done after fixing it will accelerate the degeneration of the print or film quality more so than usually occur over a given length of time.

Flat: In offset lithography, the assembled composite of negatives or positives, mostly on mylar, orange vinyl, used for making further composites or platemaking. There are one set of flats for each color. Also, a photograph, transparency or halftone that is lacking in contrast.

Flat Bed: A flat bed optical input or output device (scanner or plotter) transfers images by means of a flat plane rather than a revolving cylinder.

Flop: Turning a negative over to create a mirror image. In an electronic environment, flop or mirror is a function that creates a mirror image, either horizontally or vertically, of an image or a portion of an image.

Floppy Disk: A thin, flexible plastic disk which has been coated with iron oxide, capable of storing computer data as a magnetic pattern. Almost all programs are sold on floppy disks, which are also used as a convenient way of swapping data between computers.

Folio: A page number.

Footer: A design element that prints at the bottom of a page, often showing the publication’s name and page number.

Font: A graphical design applied to all numerals, symbols and characters in the alphabet. A font usually comes in different sizes and provides different styles, such as bold, italic, and underlining for emphasizing text.

Foreground: The immediately accessible portion of the central processing unit (CPU), which has priority over any background functions in processing.

Form: An assembly of flats occupying a single side on a printing press.

Format: In photography, the size of the original which is being used to make separations. Smaller formats are 35mm and 2 1/2 square formats. Larger formats are 4×5 and larger. In printing, the size, style, type, page, margins, printing requirements, etc., of a printed piece.

Four-color process printing: Process of reproducing a full-color image by overprinting screened separations for each of the three process colors (cyan, magenta, yellow) and black using process color inks.

Frame: A border, outlining and enhancing photos, type, or tint blocks, that has a specified thickness, style and color.

FreeHand: A computer illustration program developed by the former Aldus Corporation that was then sold to Adobe. Now developed and maintained by Macromedia.

Frequency: The lines per inch (lpi) in a halftone screen.

FTP: See File Transfer Protocol.

Full-Page Display: A video monitor capable of showing an entire 8 1/2 X 11 inch page.

Galley Proof: A proof of text copy before it is formatted for the page. <

Gamma: A measure of contrast in photographic images. A densimetric evaluation of graph paper indicating highlight to shadow contrast in terms of density values, plotted on a graph to establish the maximum and the minimum, the difference between them being the gamma.

Gamut: Every color combination that is possible to produce with a given set of colorants on a given device or system.

Gang Separations: A group of originals containing slides or prints of the same type, emulsion, highlight, middletone and shadow characteristics which will all be separated together as one piece. Highlights, middletones and shadows are set up for the average, Originals falling above or below the average will be lighter or darker than the average. There are no special tone, or color corrections done to individual pieces, because the separation is based on average readings found in the average of all the originals. Request for corrections from gang separations will result in additional charges.

Garbled: Corrupted data.

GIF: Graphics Interchange Format. A compressed graphics file format patented by Unisys, and widely used in the online environment.

Giga: Meaning billion or thousand million. In computers, it is actually 1,024 times mega and is actually 1,073,741,824. One thousand gigas is a tera.

GIGO: Garbage In, Garbage Out. If the input data is wrong or inaccurate, the output data will be inaccurate or wrong. GIGO is often the problem with data entered by hand into computer systems.

Gradation: In photographic originals and lithographic reproductions, the range of tones from the brightest highlights to the deepest shadows.

Grain: In photography, the grain is the granular particles in photographic emulsion of an original print or negative. The printing process causes the grain to become more apparent than in the original.

Graphics: For the purposes of this glossary, graphics are one of the three types of data that can be created, stored retrieved and manipulated (the other two are text and documents). Graphics are basically pictures and drawings, either created by computer or entered into the computer by scanning or photographing. See vector graphics, raster graphics and bit map for more.

Graphic Resolution: The level of quality of which graphics are printed. The higher the resolution, the better the quality of the printed graphics.

Gray Balance: In four-color process printing, proper proportions of the three-process colors (yellow, magenta and cyan) create the appearance of neutral gray with no apparent hue.

Gray Component Replacement (GCR): A technique for removing some or all of the cyan, magenta and yellow from color separations. If properly executed, the reproduction will appear the same or better than one that used conventional color reproduction without GCR.

Gray scale: The spectrum, or range, of shades of black an image has. Scanners’ and terminals’ gray scales are determined by the number of gray shades, or steps, they can recognize and reproduce. A scanner that can only see a gray scale of 16 will not produce as accurate an image as one that distinguishes a gray scale of 256.

Gray Value: The number (usually between 0 and 256) that specifies a particular shade of gray.

Gripper Margin: The unprintable blank edge on which the paper is gripped as it passes through a printing press. Usually measures a half inch or less.

Gum for Live Stamp: When postage stamps are applied prior to filling an envelope, the moisture from the stamp can inadvertently moisten the envelope flap and cause the envelope to be sealed. Gum for live stamp process avoids this.

Gummed or Seal Gum: Refers to the standard glue-when-moistened sealing method on envelopes.

Gutter: The two inner margins of facing pages of a publication.

Hyphenation and Justification: The arrangement of text evenly in a column (justification), usually requiring the breaking of words at their appropriate syllable breaks (hyphenation). For this feature, desktop publishing programs include large dictionaries which instruct where hyphens can be correctly placed.

Hairline: A .25-point rule.

Halftone image: Ink-printable image produced using a contact screen, or a digital scanner, to convert a continuous-tone image into a fixed-grid pattern of different-sized dots which creates the illusion of tones.

Hanging Indent: The first line of a paragraph specified to start to the left of the other lines in the paragraph.

Hard Copy: A printed paper copy of output in readable form. It is also a transparency film or photograph of an image displayed on the monitor.

Hard Disk: A mass storage device for digital data. One or more magnetic platters in a single casing, it can store data more precisely and access it more quickly than other forms of magnetic storage.

Hard Dot: see “soft” dot.

Header: Text that appears at the top of every page of a document when it is printed.

Hierarchial: A form of document or file structure, also known as a tree structure, where all elements except the root have parents, and all elements may or may not have children.

High Key: An image that mainly consists of highlights and midtones.

High Resolution: Basically, any image that is displayed in better quality by increasing the number of dots, or pixels, per inch than normal. Usually refers to better quality computer displays, but can describe printer quality as well. Called hi-res, for short.

Highlights: Area of an original image or reproduction with the smallest printing dots and/or the least density. On a printed sheet, the area with minimum ink coverage.

Horizontal Scale: The alteration or horizontal dimension in characters without changing height.

HSB: Hue Saturation Brightness. To artists, it is an abbreviation for all of a color’s characteristics: hue (the pigment); the saturation (the amount of pigment); and brightness (the amount of white included). With the HSB model, all colors can be defined by expressing their levels of hue, saturation and brightness in percentages.

HSL Image: A red, green, blue (RGB) image displayed on a video monitor in three channels (hue, saturation, brightness), although only one channel is displayed at a time.

HTTP: HyperText Transfer Protocol. The TCP\IP-based communications protocol developed for use on the WWW, HTTP defines how clients and servers communicate over the Web.

Hue: Attribute of a color that describes its dominant wavelength (such as red, yellow, green, blue) and distinguishes it From other colors. The wavelength of a color in its purest state without the addition of white or black. In color space, hue is arrayed around the center axis.

Hue Error: The difference between the printed color and the ideal color which it is supposed to represent. For example, cyan ink used in four-color process work should ideally reflect all the green and blue frequencies of light that fall on it, while it should absorb all of the red frequencies. In reality, the ink will not achieve this state of perfection.

Hyphenation: Two classes of hyphenation are used in preparing documentation: editorial and typesetting. Editorial hyphenation considers hyphenation for compound words and prefixes; judgements are made on context and standard use of the language at a given time. Typesetting hyphenation considers the breaking of words by syllable at the end of lines to create an elegant text design.

Icon: A graphical representation of various elements in Windows, such as disk drives, applications and documents.

Illustrator: A computer illustration program developed by Adobe Systems, Inc.

Image: The computerized representation of a picture or graphic.

Image Enhancements: Electronic functions, such as shading, highlighting and zooming, that accent an image or portion of an image.

Image Processing: Think of “data processing”: it refers to the manipulation of raw data to solve some problem or enlighten the user in some way not possible without the manipulation. So it is with image processing. Digitized images which have been “acquired” (scanned, captured by digital cameras) can be manipulated. The purpose may be simply to improve the image – change its size, its color, or simply to touch-up parts of it. But a more important application of image processing is to compare and analyze images for characteristics that a human eye alone couldn’t perceive. This ability to perceive minute variations in color, shape and relationship has opened up applications for image processing in high-speed manufacturing quality control, criminal forensics, medicine, defense, entertainment and the graphic arts.

Image Processor: Device that takes input data and changes it into the proper format for an imaging device _ printer, display, microform, or computer.

Image Resolution: The fineness or coarseness of an image as it was digitized, measured as dots-per-inch (DPI).

Imagesetter: An imaging device specially applied to create type and graphics. Uses either raster or vector techniques to expose photographic paper or film. Contrasted with a character setter, which creates only alphanumeric characters by exposing paper or film through a mask with the shapes of the letters engraved in it.

Import: To merge text and graphics into a document that you are currently creating or editing with the aid of a computer program.

Imposition: Laying out pages in a press form so that they will be in the correct order after the printed sheet is folded. In color reproduction, laying out originals in position in order that all components of a page can be gang scanned in position in one scan (See gang separation).

Indents: The positions where lines of text begin and end within the specified margins.

Independent Graphic: A graphic placed in a publication that is not tied to the text surrounding it.

Indicia: Refers to printing on the upper right corner of an envelope-usually the postage-paid notice or a box for placement of a stamp.

In-line Graphic: A graphic that is embedded in a text block or line of text.

Input Resolution: The number of samples taken at the scanner per unit of length when digitizing an image. Input resolution is often set the same as the system resolution. If the image is destined to be resized, however, the scanner resolution is set to accommodate interactive enlargement or reduction of the image at the workstation.

Insert: A printed piece prepared for insertion into a publication or other printed piece. In color separations, the placement of one piece of color into another.

Insertion Point: The place where text will be inserted when you type. The insertion point usually appears as a flashing vertical bar in the application’s window or in a dialog box. The text you type will appear to the left of the insertion point, which is pushed to the right as you type.

Inside Tint (Security Screen): Envelope has a dark tint printed on its inside to keep contents protected from snooping. Custom designs are readily available.

Instance: A particular occurrence of an object, such as a window, module, named pipe, or DDE session. Each instance has a unique handle that distinguishes it from other instances of the same type.

Interface: The hardware and software that enables electronic devices to share information.

Inter-Office Mail: Reusable large envelopes usually with string ties. Often has a series of punched holes so recipient knows that envelope contains material.

International Standards Organization. (ISO): The organization that produces many of the world’s standards. Open System Interconnect (OSI) is only one of the many areas standardized by the ISO.

Internet: The name for a worldwide, TCP/IP-based networked computing community with millions of users worldwide that links government, business, research, industry, and

education together.

Internet Protocol (IP): The primary network layer protocol of the TCP/IP protocol suite, IP is probably the most widely used network protocol in the world. IP is responsible for addressing and sending TCP packets over the network.

IP Address: Used to identify a node on a network and to specify routing information on an internetwork. Each node of the inernetwork must be assigned an unique IP address, which is made up of the network ID, plus a unique host ID assigned by the network administrator. The subnet mask is used to separate an IP address into the host ID and network ID.

ISP: Internet Service Provider. Any organization that will provide Internet access to a consumer, usually for a fee.

Java: An object-oriented programming language and environment from Sun Microsystems. Along with C, Java is compiled into an architecture-nuetral binary object and then interpreted like Perl or Tcl for a specific computer architecture.

JPEG: Joint Photographic Experts Group. A highly compressed graphics format designed to handle computer images of high resolution photographs as efficiently as possible.

Justify: The process by which a line of text is spaced between specified right- and left-hand margins.

Kbs: Kilobytes per second.

Kbyte (K): Kilobyte. One thousand bytes. To a computer, it’s actually 1,024 bytes.

Kelvin, 5000 degrees: Color temperature is frequently used to describe the color quality of light in terms of degrees of Kelvin. The lower the temperature the more yellow and red are found the higher the temperature and the bluer the light will look. 5000 degrees is an average. It is considered to produce reflected or transmitted colors as close to normal sunlight (as is possible). In the printing and photographic industries, it is used as a normal viewing condition for purposes of standardization industry wide. Fluorescent lights which are 5000 degrees Kelvin with a CRI index of 90 or more are required.

Kerning: The amount of space between characters, initially determined by the design of the font. You can adjust the spacing between to make it more aesthetically pleasing.

Keyline: A black lined area on a layout or art board indicating a precise area for the placement of a color or black and white reproduction. It is generally noted specifically to use the black line to “trap” the photo to the background or to drop the black line and simply use the keyline to create the window for a halftone placement.

Keyword: An essential or definitive term that can be used for indexing data, for later search and retrieval.

Knockout: An area on a printer’s spot-color overlay in which the overlapping color is deleted so the background color shows through.

L*A*B*: A system for describing, measuring, and controlling color, using hue, luminance, and brightness established by the International Committee on Illumination (CIE).

LAN: Local Area Network. High-speed transmissions over twisted pair, coax, or fiber optic cables that connect terminals, personal computers, mainframe computers, and peripherals together at distances of about 1 mile or less.

Landscape: Page or monitor orientation in which the page width exceeds the page length. Contrast with portrait.

Laser: The acronym for light amplification by stimulated emission by radiation. The laser is an intense light beam with a very narrow band width that can produce images by electronic impulses. It makes possible imaging by remote control from computers or facsimile transmissions.

Latex Seal Envelope: Any envelope with self-sealing adhesive. Requires no moisture.

Layout: The drawing or sketch of a proposed printed piece. In platemaking, a sheet indicating the settings or distance between images when step and repeat processes are involved.

LCD: Liquid Cyrstal Display. An electronic component containing a tiny quantity of liquid that crystallizes (turns black) when a small electrical current passes through it, and returns to a liquid state when the current is switched off.

Leaders: Dashes or dots arranged in a row to guide the eye across the page. Leaders are commonly used in tabular work.

Leading: Pronounced “ledding”. A typesetting term for the distance from baseline to baseline between lines of printed text.

Letterspacing: Small amounts of extra space inserted between letters in typeset text, to improve their appearance and readability or to fill out a line.

Ligature: Certain letter combinations that appear frequently together in fonts are combined as one character.

Lightness: Property that distinguishes white from gray or black, and light color tones from dark color tones. In color space, lightness/darkness is the center axis. Also called value.

Line Screen: The resolution of a halftone, expressed in lines per inch.

Line Shot: A negative image, photographed from mechanical art, that is used for stripping or scanning.

Line Art: Artwork that, unlike a continuous-tone image, has no gradations of tone and, therefore, does not require screening for reproduction in print.

Link: In desktop publishing, joining text boxes so that text will flow from box to box. It also refers to hardware/software which allows otherwise incompatible systems to pass data back and forth.

Lo-res: Short for low resolution. Low quality reproduction because of a small number of dots or lines per inch.

Look Up Table: A set of values in tabular form for input or output relationships. Such tables are most often associated with color calibration issues and determining how a color system translates from one color space to another.

Low Key: Describes an image that mainly consists of midtones and shadows.

LPI: Lines per inch. Measure of resolution for halftones.

Luminance: One of the components of an HSL (hue, saturation, luminance) RGB (red, green, blue) image on a video monitor. It is the highest of the RGB values plus the lowest of the RGB values, dived by two.

M: One Thousand

M Weight: The weight of one thousand sheets of paper measured in that sheets basic size.

Macro: A series of special instructions for a program or a metalanguage that allows a name to be substituted for a repeated sequence of operations or text within a document or program.

Magenta: One of the subtractive primaries the hue of which is used for one of the 4 color process inks. It reflects blue and red light and absorbs green light. Often confused with the additive primary color or red, especially when requesting color corrections.

Magenta Screen: A dyed contact screen. Generally only used in black and white reproduction of halftones and not used in color, except in indirect separations.

Mask: In color separations, an intermediate lithographic negative or positive used in color correction and employed during the direct screening method. For use in making color corrections, a mask made from rubylith or film is used to alter precise areas of tone or color on litho dupe film.

Match Art: In color reproduction most clients ask for match art reproduction. The client submits artwork or photography containing many colors and tones and asks that all colors and tones be reproduced exactly. This however is an unusually difficult task since it is virtually impossible to recreate all colors and tones from only four printing inks: cyan, magenta, yellow and black. It is therefore necessary for clients to pre-visualize how certain colors and tones will render when using process inks and dots created from the continuous tone original.

Matte Finish: In printing paper – a dull finish without any gloss or luster. In photography – a color or black and white paper with low gloss or luster which is most ideal for retouching.

Maximum Density: The measurement of the blackest or darkest area of an image on film; that is, the area with the maximum ability to stop light.

Mechanical: An assembly of type and/or artwork, usually on paper stuck to a sheet of art board.

Megabyte: Approximately one million bytes.

Metameric Pairs: Two colors that are different yet look the same when viewed under a particular light source. In technical terms, the colors have the same set of color coordinates but different spectral reflectance curves.

Metamerism: The tendency for color to shift in hue as it is viewed under different lighting conditions.

Midtones: Tonal values of an original or reproduction that fall midway between the highlight and shadow tones.

Mil: One one-thousandth (1/1000) of an inch; used to describe paper and tape thickness.

MIME: Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions. Extensions to the RFC822 mail message format to permit more complex data and file types than just plain text.

Minimum Density: The measurement of the whitest, or lightest area of an image on film.

Mirror: The process or tool that copies a selected object and inverts it by reflecting it across an imaginary line on the screen.

Modem: Short for modulator-demodulator. Device that allows digital signals to be transmitted and received over analog telephone lines.

Moire: In color process printing, the pattern which exists because of one screen angle overprinting another or several other screen angles. Sometimes the moire pattern becomes objectionable because the screen angles are less than 30 degrees, creating an “interference effect.” However, the yellow screen in process color is always less than 30 degree angle from other colors but since the yellow dots are virtually invisible to the eye these patterns are unseen.

Monospaced: A type font where all characters have the same width.

Montage: In artwork, several photographs (“C” prints) or several transparencies (all the same reproduction size) are pasted or taped to an art board or acetate in order to create a pleasing layout which is capable of being separated in one piece. Originals should contain similar highlight, middletone and shadow characteristics.

Mouse: Hand-driven input and pointing device for personal computers.

Multiples: (see also Number Up) Placing more than 1 image of the same product onto a single form.

Mylar: In image assembly; a polyester based film specifically suited for stripping film upon because of its mechanical strength and dimensional stability.

Negative: In photography, film containing an image in which values of the original are reversed so that the dark areas appear light and vice versa. In lithography; a film containing type or halftones in which the values are reversed, whites are black and blacks are clear film.

Newton Rings: In reproduction from either photography or lithography, an objectionable series or irregularly colored circles caused by the prismatic action of interfacing different smooth surfaces together, such as in contact frames or transparencies on a scanner drum.

Noise: Unwanted electronic or optical signals that cause interference in the reproduction of data or an image.

Number Up: Quantity of images placed on a single flat. (i.e. – 24 postcards can be imaged on a single 26×40 flat. – 24 up).

Object Ling and Embedding (OLE): The specification that details the implementation of Windows Objects, and the interprocess communication that supports them.

Object-Oriented Graphic: A graphic created with geometric elements that are saved in a draw-type or EPS file format.

Off-line: Something not presently active or available for access in a system.

Offset printing: Term commonly used to refer to offset lithography. The printing process where ink is transferred from the plate to the rubber blanket, then to the paper.

Oil Mounting: in scanning, it is possible as well as necessary sometimes to mount originals (usually 35mm) in oil. In cases where the original has been mishandled, has surface abrasion (on the base) or when exceptionally large reproductions are necessary (over 1000%) the original is mounted in an optical oil on the small scanning drum.

On-line: Something active or available for access in a system.

OPI: Open Prepress Interface. A descriptive language developed by Aldus and prepress vendors to provide a standardized link between desktop publishing and prepress systems. An OPI file is actually a viewing file which provides a link between the image placed in a page layout and the high resolution separation. It is automatically swapped out when the file is prepped for output.

Opaque: In lithography, to block out areas on a negative that are not wanted on the printing plate. In color reproduction, the blacking out of colors which are not desired in the final reproduction. The material which is used looks brown or black and is applied to the negative surface with a fine brush or pen.

Optical Character Recognition (OCR): The ability of a scanner with the proper software to capture, recognize and translate printed alphanumeric characters into machine readable text.

Optical Disc: A direct access storage device that is written and read by laser light. Certain optical discs are considered Write Once Read Many, or WORM, because data is permanently engraved in the disc’s surface either by gouging pits (ablation); or by causing the non-image area to bubble, reflecting light away from the reading head. Erasable optical drives use technologies such as the magneto-optic technique, which electrically alters the bias of grains of material after they have been heated by a laser. Compact discs (CDs) and laser (or video) discs are optical discs. Their storage capacities are far greater than magnetic media, and are likely to replace magnetic hard disks and tape in the near future.

Optical Scanner: Input device that translates human-readable or microform images to bit-mapped or rastered machine-readable data.

Optical storage: The means of storing or archiving data on optical discs such as CDs or laser discs.

Orientation: The relative direction of a display or printed page, either horizontal (called “landscape” orientation) or vertical (called “portrait” orientation).

Orphan: One or more ending lines of a paragraph at the beginning of a page or column and separated from the rest of the paragraph at the end of the previous page or column.

Orthochromatic: Photographic and lithographic films which are insensitive to red but sensitive to ultraviolet, blue, green and yellow areas of the spectrum.

Outline Mask: An electronic filtering function that can trace an area or object in an image and extract it. A silhouetting function used in page makeup is also referred to as an outline mask.

Output: Information that has been manipulated by the central processing unit (CPU) of the computer, and displayed either on the video monitor or rendered on paper or film as hard copy, or saved on disk in a digital format.

Output device: Any device by which a computer transforms its information to the “outside world.” In general, you can think of an output device as a machine that translates machine-readable data into human-readable information. Examples: printers, microform devices, video screens.

Output Resolution: Stated in lines per inch or lines per millimeter, output resolution reflects the number of pixels per unit size the plotter can put onto the film.

Overprinting (Double Printing): Printing over an area that has already been printed. Often used in color printing in order to enhance a particular color, or contrast and distinguish a particular color from other similar colors. It is used when the normal process color system is unable to discern close color differences, but are required by the customer.

Packet: A networking transmission unit of fixed maximum size that consists of binary information representing both data, addressing information and error-correction information, created by the data-link layer.

Packing: In lithography, the paper used to underlay a blanket, plate or proof to bring the surface to the desired height, the method of adjusting squeeze pressure. The act of inserting the packing material under the blanket or plate.

Page Make Up: In stripping, the assembly of all elements to make up a page. In electronic scanning, the assembly of page elements such as type, logos, and color separations in position to compose a complete page with all elements which are then displayed on a video terminal as they will appear in the final reproduction.

Pagination: The assignment of page numbers, either manually or electronically, in a document.

Paint Brush: A function in the toolbox of painting, drawing, and image manipulation programs. By moving the cursor on the video monitor, brush strokes of varying size and shape can be generated electronically and displayed on the screen.

Pair-kerning: Automatically kerning selected pairs of characters when they would otherwise be spaced too close or far apart. Characters that are pair-kerned are specified by the font designer.

Palette: The collection of colors, shades, or patterns that can be selected and displayed on a video screen with the aid of a computer and a graphics program.

PANTONE Colors (PMS): A color system of over 1200 standard colors developed by Pantone, Inc., Moonachie, NJ (201)935-5500.

Paragraph Alignment: An electronic function for positioning of text within a box or column; alignment can be left, right, centered or justified.

Partition: A partition is a portion of a physical disk that functions as it were a physically separate unit.

Paste: To transfer the contents of the clipboard to an application. Many applications have a Paste Command that performs this task.

PC: Short for IBM Personal Computer. Used to indicate an IBM or compatible. Sometimes used more generally to indicate any personal computer.

PCI: See Peripheral Component Interconnect.

Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI): The local bus being promoted as the successor to VL. This type of bus is used in the Apple PowerPC Macintosh and in most Intel Pentium computers.

Peripherals: A connectable device that has an auxiliary function outside the permanent system configuration.

Phosphor: Substance which glows when struck by electrons. The back of a cathode ray tube face is coated with phosphor.

Photochromic: Compounds that become dark when exposed to light, and can be made clear again by removing the light, or exposing them to light of another wavelength. Proposed as erasable optical storage media.

Photocomposition: The manipulation and transfer of graphic images and text, using photographic means, to a light-sensitive paper or film.

Photomechanical: This term is used to describe stripping flats which are to be exposed on a printing plate. It can include line negs, film positives, halftones and color separations.

Photoshop: An image editing software program created by Adobe Systems, Inc. for the manipulation of digital images.

Phototypesetter: Device that uses photographic techniques to reproduce machine-readable text on light-sensitive paper and film.

Phosphor dots: Small dots that make up the surface of television screens and computer monitors that emit light. When bombarded with an electron beam from a cathode ray tube (crt). Each pixel on the screen or monitor consists of a triad of phosphor dots, one emitting red light, one emitting green light and one emitting blue light. The crt can “turn on” different combinations of phosphor dots to create intermediary colors, and can vary the intensity of the electron beam to produce hues with more or less saturation.

Pi characters: Special non-text characters, such as mathematical symbols.

Pica: Unit of measurement used in typography and graphic design. Approximately 1/6 inch.

PICT: A picture file format developed by Apple Computer, Inc. for use on Macintosh computers. The PICT format is adequate for storing and displaying data at 72 dpi, using the Macintosh screen, but is not sophisticated enough for higher-quality work.

PIF: Program Information File. A file that provides information that Windows needs to run a non-Windows application.

Pin Register: The use of accurately positioned holes and special pins used on copy, film, plates and printing presses to insure proper registration and to assure the fit of all elements.

Pixel: An acronym for Picture Element. When an image is defined by many tiny dots, those dots are pixels. A pixel represents the smallest graphic unit of measurement on a screen. The actual size of a pixel is screen-dependent, and varies according to the size of the screen and the resolution being used.

Pixilate: The electronic function by which pixel size can be increased to enable easy manipulation in creating special effects.

Plot: To use vector graphics: that is, to draw images with many straight lines, rather than dots.

Plotter: A printer that prints vector graphics, i.e., images created by a series of many straight lines.

PMS: Pantone Matching System. A means of describing colors by assigning them numbers. See also Pantone Colors.

Point: Unit of measurement in typography, approximately 1/72 inch. There are 12 points in a pica.

Polaroid Prints: Instant prints, self developing, which are unsuitable for color reproduction.

Policy Envelope: Similar to Commercial, but seal is on the short side (like Catalog). Commonly used for cash/drop-ins, deeds, and other legal documents.

Poor Trapping: In printing, the condition in wet printing lithography when less ink transfers to a previously printed ink than to unprinted paper. The general problem is usually unsuitable ink tack, but can also be affected by the surface of the paper, the pH of the water and alcohol, improper blanket packing, oversensitive plates, ink of poor quality, incorrect ink sequence, etc.

Portrait: A page whose width is shorter than its height.

Positive: In photography and lithography, a film or print containing an image in which the light and dark values are the same as the original. The reverse would be a negative.

PostScript: A page definition language (PDL) developed by Adobe Systems. When a page of text and/or graphics is saved as a PostScript file, the page is stored as a set of instructions specifying the measurements, typefaces, and graphic shapes that make up the page.

PPD File: PostScript Printer Description file. A file that contains information on screen angle, resolution, page size and device-specific information for a file to be printed on a PostScript device.

Prepress: The preparation work required to turn “camera-ready” artwork into the printing plates needed for mass production, i.e., making negatives, “stripping” or placing the negatives in place, and etching the plates.

Prescan: The initial subscan of the scanning process, following the overview scan. The predetermined area is scanned with standardized settings to produce a preview image.

Press Proofs: In color reproduction, a proof of a color subject on a printing press, using the same color inks and paper stocks on which the final run will be done on. This proof is done prior to the final reproduction and is the only true and predictable way to show proof of what is contained in the litho films. There is no other proof system that takes into account printing aspects such as absorbency of stock, hue of inks, trap and other printing mechanics which occur on a press.

Primary Colors: Additive primaries are red, blue and green. The subtractive primaries are cyan, magenta and yellow. (See additive and subtractive primaries.)

Print & Convert: Print on flat sheets, then convert the flat sheets to envelopes.

Print Engine: Inside a laser printer, the mechanism that uses a laser to create an electrostatic image of a page and transfers it onto a sheet of paper.

Print Quality: In paper, the properties of the paper that affect its appearance and the quality of the reproduction.

Print Queue: A list of files that have been sent to a particular printer. The list includes the file currently printing and those waiting to be printed.

Printing Dot: The smallest graphic element, and the particulate base for all graphic elements when reproduced in print.

Process Colors: In printing, the subtractive primary process ink colors are cyan, magenta, yellow plus black in four color process printing.

Process Color Printing: The recreation of color by combing two or more of the subtractive colors _ cyan, magenta, and yellow, plus black.

Process Printing: The printing from a series of two or more plates containing halftones representing process colors in order to produce intermediate colors, shades and tones.

Progressive Proofs (Progs): Proofs made from separate plates in process work, usually during a press proof, showing the sequence of printing and the result after each additional color has been applied. Can be used most effectively to determine if any problems exist and can be used on a basis for corrections or future reprinting. There are six two-color combinations plus the four process colors (c&m/c&y/c&k/m&y/m&k/y&k) and there are three (k&c&m/k&y&m/k&c&y) three color combinations.

Proof: In graphic arts, a colored material, substrate or dye used to simulate the subtractive printing primaries of cyan, magenta and yellow and also includes black as well as the other colors. The colorants used in these proof materials should render process colors with no apparent hue error. When the proof colors are combined in registration they will show the approximate printing values, colors and hues of how an original will look when printed or compared to how the original looked.

Proportional Leading: A method of leading in which two-thirds of the leading space is above the text baseline and one-third of the leading space is below the spaceline.

Psychological Aspects of Color: The sensations of color are hue, saturation and brightness. None of these is directly measurable by the human eye. The eye cannot distinguish component wavelengths in a single color. When two lights of different colors are mixed to produce a third color, no human eye can detect its composite nature. The simple fact is that the sensation of color to one observer can vary and be different to another observer. And in the printing process, the eye cannot measure ink film thickness. That is why densitometers are used to measure ink density. Quadratone: A black-and-white image reproduced through the four-color process in which black is simulated by levels of gray to bring out detail and provide dimension.

Quality Control: In printing, the process of taking random samples during the press run to check the consistency of quality. In photography, the viewing of color originals under a color corrected light source to determine if highlights, middletone and shadows are correct.

Quarter Tones: A neutral gray area on a reproduction scale located between the highlight and the middletone.

Queue: see print queue.

Random Access Memory (RAM): The memory that is used to run applications and perform other necessary tasks while the computer is on. When the computer is turned off, all information in RAM is lost. When PC’s were first introduced, they could address as much as 640K RAM. With the advent of X86 architecture and DOS upgrades, this barrier was broken and increased to 32Meg (32,000K) of RAM. Microsoft’s Windows NT has promised to break this barrier and be able to address up to 32Gigs (32,000,000K) of RAM.

Random Proof: Also known as a loose-color proof or a scatter proof. A press proof or off-press which is made from just one image, to check its appearance before it is stripped into position with other images in a page layout.

Raster Display: The most common type of display terminal. Uses pixels in a column-and-row array to display text and images.

Raster Font: A font created as a graphic bitmap image. It is available only in a fixed size – not scaleable. A raster font is used mainly on the screen, but is also used by some dot-matrix printers and built into some laser printers.

Raster Image: An image displayed as a series of lines of dots or video “blips.”

Read: The process by which the central processing unit (CPU) of the computer is instructed to find specified data for display or output.

Reader’s Spread: Two sequentially numbered pages of a document placed side-by-side for work of some sort to be carried out.

Real Time: Processing on a system which responds immediately to the user’s instructions.

Red: An additive primary color the hue of which is created by overprinting equal parts of magenta and yellow which are primary subtractive printing colors.

Reflective Copy: In lithography, an illustration copy or photograph that is viewed and must be reproduced by reflecting light from the surface of such an original.

Refresh Rate: Measure of how often the image on a CRT is redrawn; often expressed in hertz. Typically 60 times per second, or 60 Hz in the United States.

Register: In printing and image assembly, the fitting of two or more images on the same exact spot either on paper or mylar thereby insuring exact alignment with each other.

Regular Envelope: Any envelope without a window.

Render: To interpret the contents of a document, image, or other file so that it can be displayed or played back on a computer.

Remittance Envelope: Has oversize flap. Meant to be mailed in a cover envelope and returned with an enclosure to the sender.

Repagination: The process used to change page numbers in multiple documents, while retaining a uniform format and proper numerical sequence.

Re-Screening Color Separations: In lithography, the ability to make a color separation from an original which has already been separated and published. There are limitations. Since the same basic screens and screen angles are used, it is necessary to slightly enlarge (104% or greater) or reduce (90% or smaller) in order to reduce or eliminate conflicting screen angles causing a moiré pattern. The further use of a sharp or unsharp masking controls and the use of selective focus may also be necessary.

Resolution: 1. Measure of imager output capability, usually expressed in dots per inch (dpi). 2. Measure of halftone quality, usually expressed in lines per inch (lpi).

Retouching (Color): The correction or deliberate manipulation of color, tone or detail in an original work of art, photograph or other original which needs correction. Note: retouching materials, especially in photography, must be specifically designed for use on photographic materials such as prints or transparencies. Often when incompatible materials are used, it becomes difficult if not impossible to reproduce a similar or exact color.

RGB: Red, Green, Blue. The primary colors, called “additive” colors, used by color monitor displays and TVs. The combination and intensities of these three colors can represent the whole spectrum.

Right Reading: Normal left-to-right image reproduction. Contrast with wrong reading.

RIP: Raster Image Processor, the hardware/software which converts data which has been stored in a computer into a series of lines of tiny dots which are output on film or photographic paper. In line work, the dots can be grouped to create solid areas.

Rods: Photoreceptors in the retina of the human eye that are sensitive to low light levels.

ROM: Read Only Memory. Data stored in a medium that allows it to be accessed but not erased or altered.

Rosette Pattern: A screen dot pattern which is formed by printing two or more halftone screens over one another and which have a 30ø or more angle difference between them. Example: a 45 degree, a 75 degree and a 105 degree combination would yield a good three color rosette pattern without an objectionable pattern. When a screen which has less than a 30 degree angle is included, an objectionable pattern develops and can be seen (unless it is used in the yellow printer) this is called a moiré pattern.

Rotation: Tilting an image in response to customer requests or to align it with other page elements. Rotating an image that has been transformed into computer data is a time consuming and relatively expensive operation.

RRED: In lithography, Right Reading Emulsion Down. This means a film image that when plated would read correctly. Not always ideal since it requires intermediate films to be made during composite work.

RREU: In lithography, Right Reading Emulsion Up. This means film whose image would print wrong when plated. The image has been flopped when this is the case. The term RREU is generally used when ordering a color separation when a flopped image is required. (But watch for type and other images that would give it away.) For composite film work, many separations are scanned RREU in order to save the intermediate film required when doing contact film work E to E.

RTF: Rich Text Format. An export file format supported by many word processors and desktop publishing programs.

Rule: A vertical or horizontal straight line of specific thickness that is used to accent a design.

Runnability: The paper properties that affect the ability of the paper to run on the press. These properties also affect how the inks make contact to the paper, the rate of the absorbency, the trap and the hold out of the ink on paper combination.

Safelights: In photography and lithography, the use of special dark room lights for illumination which the materials being used are not sensitive to: Example: orthochromatic film is blue sensitive, therefore red safelights containing no blue spectrum are used.

Sans Serif: Describes typefaces that have the same weight and thickness throughout.

Saturation: In color, the nature of colors in terms of density. A color with heavy saturation will have a higher densitometric values when compared to a color having less saturation and lower densitometric values. In photography, a saturated color original would show colors at their maximum reproduction density without reproduction as a shadow. Color will tend to appear pure in nature when heavy with nature.

Scale Compression: The shortening of the tonal scale used in conventional lithographic processes to compensate the ink and paper press gains often found in the printing process. It can also effectively lighten a dark original when scanning. This scale compensation always takes place, we don’t have any choice, it is part of the color reproduction process.

Scaled Point Size: A point size that approximates a specific point size for use on the screen.

Scaling: Determining the proper size of an image to be produced (or reduced/enlarged). It is important that both directions be scaled in order to ensure proper fit in the final reproduction.

Scan: To convert human-readable images into bit-mapped or ASCII machine-readable code.

Scanner: An electronic device used in making color separations. Originals are placed on drums, which are rotated, reproduce the original via digital and electronic signals transferred to the finished film size through fiber optics. Scanners utilize electronic circuits to correct color, compress the tones and enhance the detail.

Scanner Screen Angles: The screen angles differ from standard screen angles in that all angles have been advanced by 6 degrees. The reason for this is that if a standard yellow screen set at 90 degrees when scanned would create an objectionable screen pattern, thus creating an interference pattern that would be noticeable in the final reproduction as a moiré.

Scanning Direction: During set up on an electronic scanner, the operator determines whether or not to run an original right reading or wrong reading. There are several reasons for doing this. 1. The layout indicates the client wants it this way. 2. In order to save money on film at the composite stage, all stripping is done RREU emulsions and duped to a final negative which is correctly oriented for platemaking.

Scatter Proof: See random proof.

Screen Angles: In lithography, it is necessary to rotate the angles of the screens in order to create a rosette pattern. Using a horizontal line as a base plane, the first angle would be found at 45 degree angle from the base, 75 degrees would be the next, 90 degrees and finally 105 degrees.

Screen Font: A raster font designed to duplicate a printer font on the screen. See also raster font.

Screen Ruling: The number of lines or dots per inch in both directions on a contact screen to make halftones or separations. Screen rulings are available from 65 lines per inch to 200 lines per inch. For color separations, however, it is best to use 150 line screens for best press control and visual resolution.

Scroll: To move text or graphics up or down, or left or right, in order to see parts of the file that cannot fit on the screen.

Scroll Bars: The bars at the bottom and right edge of a window whose contents are not entirely visible. Each scroll bar contains a small box, called a scroll box, and two scroll arrows to allow different types of scrolling.

SCSI: Small Computer System Interface. Pronounced “scuzzy.” An industry standard for connecting peripheral devices and their controllers to a microprocessor. The SCSI defines both hardware and software standards for communication between a host computer and a peripheral. Computers and peripheral devices designed to meet SCSI specifications should work together.

Serif: Short cross-lines appearing at the ends of the main strokes of characters in a typeface.

Server: A computer which is dedicated to one task. A database or directory server would be responsible for responding to a user’s search request, returning the list of stored documents that meets with the parameters of the request.

Set Solid: Describes lines in which leading equals point size and which appears to be almost flush with the lines above and below.

Shadows: Areas of an original image or reproduction with the largest printing dots and/or the greatest density. On a printed sheet, the area with maximum ink coverage.

Sharpen: The electronic manipulation of an image to alter the edge contrast of its elements.

Shortcut Key: A key combination that carries out some action in a software program. For example, in Windows, pressing ALT + ESC switches among loaded applications.

Shrink: The contact manipulation of litho film due to the intentional over exposure of a film positive made from a film negative. The width is determined by the amount of trap necessary to visually trap two areas together.

Side Seam Envelope: Refers to envelope where glue runs parallel to sealed edges. Not as strong as diagonal seal, but uses less paper to produce.


Signature: In printing, the name given to a printed sheet which is to be folded. In stripping, the name given to the stripped flats to be printed and folded.

Silhouette: An electronic filtering function that can outline an area or object in an image and extract the background.

Skew: To slant a selected item in any direction; used in graphics and desktop publishing.

Soft Dot: In lithography, a dot is called “soft” when a halation or fringe around the dot is evident or excessive. On the other hand the reverse would be true if the dot had little or no fringe noticeable and the dot is very sharp, this would be considered a “hard” dot. A hard dot can be made by etching or contact work.

Soft Font: A font that is downloaded to your printer’s memory from a disk provided by the font manufacturer.

Soft Proof: A proof that is seen on a color video monitor, as opposed to a hard proof on paper.

Spectrophotometer: Analytical instrument that measures relative intensity at many points of the wavelength scale. Most spectrophotometers have a built-in microprocessor or are interfaced with a computer and can plot this data as a spectral curve and calculate color space coordinates.

Spectrum: The complete range of colors in light in a rainbow, from short wavelengths (ultraviolet) to long wavelengths (infrared) red.

Spooler: A method by which a computer can store data and feed it gradually to an external device, such as a printer, which is operating more slowly than the computer.

Spot Color: A specific color in a design, usually designated to be printed with a specific matching ink, rather than through process CMYK printing.

Spread: In lithographic image assembly, the use of exposure manipulation in order to alter the size of the original mask (enlarge slightly) so it will trap against a positive (reverse) of the mask so that a slight overlapping of the two images is the result. (See Shrink.)

Square Dot: Differs from an elliptical dot in that the dots have a square appearance instead of round or elongated. Best used for commercial web printing.

Standard Screen Angles: 45 degrees, 75 degrees, 90 degrees and 105 degrees. Screen angles vary 30 degrees from one to another except for the yellow printer which will always be at 90 degrees. This angle causes an objectionable moiré but is not apparent because the human eye is not sensitive to the yellow dot information, only its hue and chroma.

Storage Media: The physical device itself, onto which data is recorded. Mag tape, optical discs, floppy disks are all storage media.

Stripping: In offset-lithography, the positioning of negatives (or positives) on a flat (mylar, plastic, rubylith, etc.) prior to platemaking. (See Image Assembly).

Subtractive color system: Means of producing an image using colorants and a reflective substrate. Uses cyan, magenta and yellow colorants to subtract portions of the white light illuminating an object to produce other colors. When overprinting in equal amounts, cyan, magenta and yellow produce the appearance of black. Color paintings, color photography and all color printing processes are examples of subtractive color.

SWOP: Specifications for Web Offset Publications. A standard set of specifications for color separations, proofs, and printing to encourage uniform standards in the industry.

System Time: The time set by your computer’s internal clock.

System Time: Tab Alignment: An electronic function for alignment of text on tab stops; alignment can be left, right, centered or decimal.

Tack: In printing inks, the property of cohesion between particles; the pulling power or separation force of ink in its transfer from a press blanket to its intended printing surface. A tacky ink has high separation forces and can cause surface picking or splitting of weak papers. A lack of tack has very little ability to transfer properly from blanket to paper because it has a low adhesion tendency, this effects trap.

Template: A dummy publication that acts as a model for the structure and general layout of another publication.

Text File: A file containing only letters, digits and symbols. A text file usually consists of characters coded from the ASCII character set.

Three Quarter Tones: A neutral gray area on a reproduction scale located between the middletones and the shadow.

Throat: Refers to the envelope opening which will be sealed by the user.

Thumbnail: A miniature copy of a page.

TIFF: Tag Image File Format. A document format developed by Aldus, Microsoft and leading scanner vendors as a standard for bitmapped graphics, including scanned images.

Tiling: Reproducing oversize artwork or documents by breaking the image area into parts (called tiles). Adjacent tiles repeat a small portion of the image, and they may contain crop marks as well. The repeated portion of the image (the overlap) and the crop marks aid in reconstructing the overall image from the tiles.

Tints: Various even tones (strengths) of a solid color. Created by the use of photomechanical tints usually available in percentages of 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 95% screen tints from various manufacturers. Sometimes referred to as Bendays.

Tissue Overlay: A thin, translucent paper placed over artwork (mostly mechanical) for protection; used to indicate color breaks, position of halftones and color separations and areas on color originals which need color correction.

Tone: Lightness/darkness value of a color. Variation of lightness or saturation of a color with no change in hue.

Tone compression: Reduction of the tonal range of the original photographic image to the tonal range that is achievable with the combination of printing process, ink and paper used to reproduce the image.

Tone gradation: Change in density within an image. For screened images, tone gradation is defined in terms of dot area percentage ranging from 1% to 100%.

Tonal Merge: In photography, colors, textures, shapes, and details which are recorded and compressed in a shadow area which merge and record as shadows. If these details are important they should have enough light placed upon them so they render as middletones and not shadows. In color separations, similar colors, tones and areas which when separated, reproduce as like tones, especially in shadow areas where there are little or no tonal differences. If the details which already have tonal merges are necessary in the final reproduction, it is highly recommended to go back and rephotograph or go to the added expense of overprinting a 5th color. (See Overprinting.)

Tone Reproduction: The contrast of an original must adjust during color reproduction to conform to the ranges of the halftone screens from 1% to 100%. It is virtually impossible to print densities more than 100% and tones less than 2 or 3% will have no detail. This is one of the most difficult limitations of the printing process to understand or accept.

Toner: A dry ink powder which has been electrically charged. Used in printers, fax machines and copiers. Generally, the image is translated into bit mapped charges of the opposite polarity on a special drum in the printer. The toner is attracted to the charged areas, where it is transferred to paper. The toner is then “set”, usually by heat.

Track Kerning: A method of uniformly increasing or decreasing the amount of letter and word spacing over a range of text, depending upon the specific font and size.

Tracking: Adjusting the letterspacing uniformly throughout a selected portion of text. See kerning.

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP): The primary wide area network used on the worldwide Internet, which is a worldwide internetwork of universities, research labs, organizations, and corporations. TCP/IP includes standards for how computers communicate and conventions for connecting networks and routing traffic, as well as specifications for utilities.

Transparency: A film-based positive image that is viewed and reproduced through transmitted light.

Transparent Copy: In photography, illustrative copy such as a color transparency, through which light must pass in order for it to be seen or reproduced. Transparencies generally produce better than reflective art (color prints) because they contain a larger tonal range and more overall density.

Trapping: The ability to print wet ink film over previously printed ink. Wet trapping is dependent upon several press and paper conditions including hardness and holdout of the paper, tack of the inks, and general condition of the rollers, cylinders and blankets on the press. Dry trapping is printing wet ink over dry ink. Improper trapping will cause color changes.

Trichromatic: The technical name for RGB representation of color, i.e., using red, green and blue to create all the colors in the spectrum.

Trim Marks: Guides that show where a document will be cut to fit the specifications of a final printed product.

Tritone: An image reproduced using three colors.

TRUMATCH: A color matching system which is based solely on color attributes attainable from CYMK printing as opposed to spot ink colors. Like PMS, an electronic version of the system is a feature of many color painting, drawing, and layout software products.

TrueType TM: A font format created by Microsoft and Apple Computer intended to replace Adobe Postscript fonts, mainly on lower-cost publishing systems.

Tungsten Lighting: In photography, this type of electrical light source which provides specific color temperature light at a fairly even rate. The two types of illumination which are most popular are 3200 degree Kelvin and 3400 degree Kelvin. Films capable of accurately recording each of these specific areas of the spectrum are available. When used in a daylight situation, the tungsten film will record parts of the tungsten spectrum and parts of the daylight spectrum rendering unsuitable results.

Type 1 Fonts: PostScript Bezier outline format fonts with special encryption for compactness and improved quality on low-resolution output devices.

Type Style: A variation, such as bold or italic, or outline, of a font. Under Color Removal (UCR): Removing excessive densities of cyan, magenta and yellow in neutral shadow areas to allow for more press controllability without plugging up the shadows

Tyvek®: DuPont’s water resistant and nearly indestructible material-envelope seals with pressure sensitive adhesive covered with a peel-off protective strip.

Undo: A common software command which cancels the previous action.

Unit: In multicolor printing presses, refers to the combination of inking, plate and impression operations to print a single color. A four color press has four printing units each with its own inking, plate and impression functions.

Unsharp Mask: A masking method done electronically to exaggerate the edges of the images and the difference between light and dark areas or hues to enhance the detail in the final reproduction. (See also Detail Contrast and Electronic Enhancement.) Also known as peaking.

URL: Uniform Resource Locator. The primary naming scheme used to identify Web resources, URL’s define the protocols to be used, the domain name of the Web server where a resource resides, the port address to be used for communication, and the directory path to access a named Web document or resource.

User Interface: The method by which a user gives instructions to a computer and receives a response.

Value: A density or numeric assignment of a color, tone or density made by direct comparison or by use of a densitometer. Color printing values range from 2% minimum controllable dot to 98% maximum controllable dot. Values in color can be pre-selected for density, hue and depth by using a process printing guide. This is an excellent way to pre-visualize how a particular color may be expected to reproduce on a printing press.

Vector: Images defined by sets of straight lines, defined by the locations of the end points. At larger magnifications, curves may appear jagged. This condition is call aliasing.

Vector Display: Terminal that displays images with vectored line segments, rather than pixels.

Vector Font: A series of dots connected by lines that can be scaled to different sizes. Also known as stroke fonts.

Vectorization: Translation of a pixel-based image to a vector-based image.

VGA: Video Graphics Array. Standard IBM video display standard. Provides medium-resolution text and graphics.

Vignette: An illustration in which the background fades gradually away until it blends into the unprinted paper.

Virtual Machine: An environment created by Windows running in 386 enhanced mode in which an application can run and behave as if it had an entire machine all to itself. Windows in 386 enhanced mode can have multiple applications running in their own separate virtual machines at the same time.

Virtual Memory: The use of a portion of the hard disk to swap out data when insufficient RAM exists to hold all such data.

Virus: A small program, commonly imbedded in another program, that infects programs and causes them to malfunction. It is often designed to destroy data and infect other programs, drives and disks.

Visible light: The small portion of the electromagnetic energy spectrum the human eye can detect. Visible light includes wavelengths of light from approximately 400 nanometers to 700 nanometers. (A nanometer is one-billionth of a meter.)

Warm Color: In printing or color separations, a color which has a reddish or yellowish cast. By using a color print viewing filter set a more desirable color may be selected if a color correction is necessary.

Wavelength: Distance from peak to peak of a periodic waveform such as electromagnetic energy. The wavelengths of visible light are expressed in terms of nanometers (one-billionth of a meter).

Web: 1) A roll of paper used in web or rotary printing. 2) An abbreviation for the World Wide Web.

Web Press: A press which prints from rolls (or webs) of paper, as this type of press differs when compared to a sheet-fed press.

Web Sites: Individual Web document collections named by home pages or other unique URLs.

WebCrawler: A class of computer programs designed to ceaselessly search the Web, looking for specific content or simply following links to see where they go.

WebMaster: The individual responsible for managing a specific Web site.

Widow: A word or portion of a word that is left alone on a line at the end of a paragraph. Space adjustments should be made to the text blocks to remove widows.

Window: (1) In stripping, an opening in a rubylith or film flat that allows light to be transmitted through a screen, halftone or color separation in order for a precise area of information to be transferred to another piece of film or a printing plate. When making dupe composited negatives it often becomes necessary to use film windows instead of rubylith to prevent newton rings which appear in the transferred image area. (2) On a PC, a rectangular area on your screen in which you view an application or document.

Window Envelopes: Windows are available for any size envelope. They include cut-out area to expose part of the envelope’s contents (e.g., an address on a letter.) Envelopes can have more than one window which can be open or protected with cellophane.

Windows: A Microsoft operating system that features multiple screen and a graphical user interface. Similar to the Macintosh interface, as the original interface designed at the, Xerox PARC.

Windows 95/98: A Microsoft operating system that move the GUI much closer to that of the Macintosh. Is a true 32 bit operating system and true multi-tasking environment.

Word Space: The amount of white space between words, based on values set by the font designer.

Word Wrap: A feature that moves text from the end of a line to the beginning of a new line as you type. With word wrap, you do not have to press ENTER at the end of each line in a, paragraph.

World Wide Web: The graphical portion of the Internet.

Work Space: The area of a window that displays the information contained in the application or document you are working with.

WYSIWYG: What You See Is What You Get. Pronounced “wizzy-wig.” It refers to a graphics or publishing program that displays images.

No words starting with X.

Yellow: One of the subtractive primaries the hue of which is used for one of the four color process inks. It reflects red and green light and absorbs blue light.

ZIP: To compress a file using the program PKZIP. This program has been widely distributed as shareware through many bulletin board systems and shareware services. Also available from the publishers site.

ZIP Drive: A disk drive designed and marketed by Iomega that stores 100MB or 250MB of information in a small footprint cartridge. Designed to be the next generation floppy drive.

Zoom: To enlarge a portion of an image in order to see it more clearly or make it easier to alter.